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Joan CAMPBELL-TOFTE, et al.

Rauvolfia Vomitoria vs Diabetes









Related: NELSON, P.: Veronia vs Diabetes // Herbs vs Diabetes



https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037887411000704X
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 133, Issue 2, 27 January 2011, Pages 402-411

Randomized and double-blinded pilot clinical study of the safety and anti-diabetic efficacy of the Rauvolfia-Citrus tea, as used in Nigerian Traditional Medicine
Joan I.A.Campbell-Tofte, et al.

Abstract
The aim of this randomized and double blinded pilot clinical trial was to investigate the anti-diabetic efficacy of the Rauvolfia-Citrus (RC) tea in humans. We have earlier shown that a combination of calorie-restriction and chronic administration of the RC tea to the genetic diabetic (BKS-db) mice resulted in the normalization of blood sugar, reduction in lipid accumulated in the mice eyes and prevention of the degeneration of the otherwise brittle BKS-db pancreas. The tea is made by boiling foliage of Rauvolfia vomitoria and fruits of Citrus aurantium and is used to treat diabetes in Nigerian folk medicine...

Materials and methods

The RC tea was produced using the Nigerian traditional recipe and tested in the traditional dosage on 23 Danish type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. The participants were divided into two equivalent groups after stratification by sex, age and BMI, in a 4-month double-blinded, placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial. Most of the study subjects (19/23) were using oral anti-diabetic agents (OADs). Mean disease duration was 6 ± 4.6 years, mean age was 64 ± 7 years and mean BMI was 28.7 ± 3.8 kg/m2. Prior to starting the treatment, the participants received individual dietician consultations.
Results

At the end of the 4-month treatment period, the treated group showed an 11% decrease in 2-h postprandial plasma glucose relative to the 3% increase in the placebo group (p = 0.004). The improvement in blood glucose clearance with RC tea treatment was reflected in a 6% reduction in HbA1c (p = 0.02) and in a 10% reduction in fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.02), when comparing the post 4-month treatment to pre-treatment baseline values. Though the basal levels of phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase enzyme in skeletal muscle were significantly reduced in the treated group (p = 0.04), as compared to the placebo, only the pattern of reductions in the tissue fatty acids (FAs) differed in the two groups. While all types of FAs were reduced in placebo, only saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) FAs were reduced with treatment. Interestingly, a modest increase in the polyunsaturated FAs fraction was observed in the RC treated group. In addition, the reduction in SFA and MUFA with RC tea treatment came solely from the triglyceride fractions, as there was an increase in the skeletal muscle phospholipids.
Conclusions

Chronic administration of the RC tea to overweight T2D on OADs caused significant improvements in markers of glycaemic control and modifications to the fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle, without adverse effects or hypoglycaemia. Further exploration of the anti-diabetic effects of the RC tea is warranted...



https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1546/rauvolfia-vomitoria

RAUVOLFIA VOMITORIA

OTHER NAME(S): African Serpentwood, African Snakeroot, Akanta, Asofeyeje, Eto Mmong Eba Ebot In, Ira, Mmoneba, Poison Devil-pepper...

Overview Information

Rauvolfia vomitoria is a shrub found mainly in West Africa. The roots, leaves, and stem are used in medicine.

People use Rauvolfia vomitoria for convulsions, fever, weakness, inability to sleep, mental disorders, pain, arthritis, cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, and health of the stomach, intestines, and liver. It is also used to promote sleepiness and vomiting.

Rauvolfia vomitoria is applied to the skin for snake bites, skin infections, and swelling.

It is placed in the rectum for worms in the intestine and for menstrual pains.

In western countries such as the U.S. and Canada, Rauvolfia vomitoria is used in some workout supplements. Countries including Canada and others have banned supplements containing Rauvolfia vomitoria extract from the market. This is because some Rauvolfia vomitoria extracts contain high levels of chemicals that are prescription drugs.

How does it work?

Rauvolfia vomitoria has been used as a traditional medicine in Western Africa. It contains chemicals that lower blood pressure, kill cancer cells and bacteria, and help with brain function. It is not completely clear which chemicals are the most important in Rauvolfia vomitoria or exactly how they might work together.

Uses & Effectiveness?

Insufficient Evidence for:

    Diabetes. Early research shows that drinking a beverage made from the leaves and stems of Rauvolfia vomitoria and the fruit of bitter orange helps reduce levels of blood sugar following a meal in some people with diabetes. But it doesn't seem to improve fasting or average blood sugar.
    Psychosis. Early research shows that taking Rauvolfia vomitoria root powder daily for 6 weeks improves symptoms of psychosis in some people. But it also seems to cause shakiness, jerky movements, or slower movements in some people. These side effects are similar to those of medications for mental conditions (antipsychotic drugs).

Side Effects & Safety

Rauvolfia vomitoria is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth. Taking Rauvolfia vomitoria dried root powder can cause shakiness, jerky movements, or slower movements in some people. These effects are similar to side effects of medications for mental conditions (antipsychotic drugs). Rauvolfia vomitoria also contains chemicals that have been shown to affect the heart and blood vessels, causing low blood pressure and slow heart rate. Other possible side effects of these chemicals include stomach problems, drowsiness, dizziness, and other problems with the brain and nervous system.

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy: It's POSSIBLY UNSAFE to use Rauvolfia vomitoria during pregnancy. Rauvolfia vomitoria contains chemicals that might cause birth defects.

Breastfeeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking Rauvolfia vomitoria if you are breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Anxiety: Rauvolfia vomitoria contains a chemical that might make anxiety worse. Use Rauvolfia vomitoria with caution in people with anxiety.

Depression: Rauvolfia vomitoria contains a chemical that might make depression worse. But some early research shows that Rauvolfia vomitoria does not cause or worsen depression. Until more is known, use Rauvolfia vomitoria with caution in people with depression.

Diabetes: Rauvolfia vomitoria might lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use Rauvolfia vomitoria.

Shock therapy (electroconvulsive therapy, ECT): Rauvolfia vomitoria should not be used by people who are receiving ECT. Stop taking Rauvolfia vomitoria at least one week before beginning ECT.

Gall stones: Rauvolfia vomitoria might make gallbladder disease worse.

Stomach ulcers, intestinal ulcers, or ulcerative colitis: Don't use Rauvolfia vomitoria if you have ever had one of these conditions.

Allergy to reserpine or similar medicines known as rauwolfia alkaloids: Don't take Rauvolfia vomitoria if you are allergic to these medicines.

Low blood pressure: Don't use Rauvolfia vomitoria if you have low blood pressure. Rauvolfia vomitoria might lower blood pressure even further and cause very low levels.

A tumor in the adrenal glands that causes dangerously high blood pressure (pheochromocytoma): Don't use Rauvolfia vomitoria if you have this condition.

Surgery: Rauvolfia vomitoria might affect blood sugar levels, making blood sugar control difficult during and after surgery. Stop using Rauvolfia vomitoria at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.



US7579025
ANTI-DIABETIC EXTRACT ISOLATED FROM RAUVOLFIA VOMITORIA AND CITRUS AURANTIUM, AND METHODS OF USING SAME

Inventor: CAMPBELL-TOFTE JOAN


Abstract
This invention provides a process for extracting a pharmaceutically active fraction from the foliage (leaves and stems) and/or roots of Rauvolfia vomitoria and the fruit of Citrus aurantium. In one aspect, the process requires extracting from a boiled tea of Rauvolfia vomitoria foliage and/or roots and Citrus aurantium fruit an active fraction made by filtering the boiled tea and concentrating the supernatant. In one embodiment, the fraction is concentrated by freeze drying the supernatant. The fraction is useful to treat a disorder associated with abnormally elevated glucose levels in a subject by administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of the extract or a pharmaceutical composition containing the extract. Such conditions include, but are not limited to the diabetes Type II, abnormal steraAroyl-CoA desaturase activity, hyperphagia, abnormal lipid mobilization, abnormal fatty acid profile from the eye of the subject, ulcers and a glucosuria.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is in the field of pharmaceuticals. In particular, it is related to the field of anti-diabetic pharmaceuticals for the prevention and treatment of disease.

BACKGROUND

Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, makes glucose available to cells in the human body for the purpose of obtaining energy. Diabetes mellitus is primarily a disturbance of the body's glucose or carbohydrate metabolism. In diabetes mellitus Type I, the pancreas produces little insulin or it does not produce it at all. Treatment requires daily insulin injections so that a diabetic can survive. In diabetes mellitus Type II, the pancreas produces insulin, but the quantity of insulin is insufficient or it is less effective due to the cellular resistance, or both. In each of these forms there are various abnormalities, but the basic defects to which these abnormalities can be attributed are: (1) the reduced entering of glucose into various “peripheral” tissues; and (2) the increased releasing of glucose from the liver into the bloodstream (increased liver glucogenesis).

The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that 2 to 10 out of every 100 people will develop the condition during their lifetime and that 90% of these will be of the Type II, late onset non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Nathan (1993) New Eng. J. Med. 328:1676-1685. In Type II diabetes, the insulin stimulated glucose uptake and utilization in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue is impaired.

Zimmet (1982) Diabetologia 22:399-411. The defects can be improved by caloric restriction and exercise. In the later stages of the disease, the only recourse for patients is a life-long hypoglycemic therapy.

Currently approved treatments for Type II diabetes include the administration of sulphonamides, biguanidines (Turner and Clapham (1998) Prog. Drug. Res. 51:33-94) and thiazolidinediones. Kohlroser et al. (2000) Am. J. Gast. 96:272-276. The drawbacks of the currently available drugs include harmful side effects and numerous counter indications (e.g. impossibility of application in pregnancy and during the suckling period), as well as their ineffectiveness in stemming the tissue complications that arise from long-term Type II diabetes. Therefore, new therapies are under investigation, e.g., the administration of herbal extracts.

For example, U.S. Patent Publ. No. 20030206976 discloses an herbal extract from a composition which contains: Centaurii umbellatum, Gentianaceae (centaury plant), Teraxacum officinale, Asteraceae (dandelion root), Juniperi communis L, Cupresaceae (juniper berry), Urticae dioica L, Urticeae (nettle plant), Urticae dioica L, Urticaceae (nettle root), Cichorium intybus L, Cichoriaceae (chicory root), Morus nigra L, Moraceae, (mulberry leaf), Achilleae millefolium L, Asteraceae (yarrow flower), Vaccinium myrtillus L, Ericaceae (bilberry leaf), Phaseolus vulgaris L, Fabaceae (bean pods), Valeriana officinalis L, Valerlanaceae (Valerian root). The extract is used to treat diabetes mellitus Type II.

U.S. Patent Publ. No. 20030086985 discloses a process for isolating an extract from Argyrobium roseum that contains the flavonoid glycoside and which possesses hypoglycaemic activity. Compositions containing this extract are useful to treat various hyperglycaemic conditions including non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus disease. U.S. Patent Publication 20020187201 discloses a process for the control of diabetes mellitus using natural products isolated from Perna viridis.

However, a need still exists to find a composition and treatment with long-term effects. The invention described here satisfies this need and provides related advantages as well.

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

This invention provides a process for extracting a pharmaceutically active fraction from the foliage (leaves and stems) and/or roots of Rauvolfia vomitoria and the fruit of Citrus aurantium. In one aspect, the process requires extracting from a boiled tea of Rauvolfia vomitoria foliage and/or roots and Citrus aurantium fruit an active fraction made by filtering the boiled tea and concentrating the supernatant. In one embodiment, the fraction is concentrated by freeze drying the supernatant.

Also provided by this invention is a method of treating a disorder associated with abnormally elevated glucose levels in a subject by administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of the extract or a pharmaceutical composition containing the extract. Such conditions include, but are not limited to the diabetes Type II, abnormal steraroyl-CoA desaturase activity, hyperphagia, abnormal lipid mobilization, abnormal fatty acid profile from the eye of the subject, ulcers and a glucosuria....
 
Applicant has identified a process for extracting a pharmaceutically active fraction from the foliage (leaves and stems) and/or roots of Rauvolfia vomitoria and the fruit of Citrus aurantium. In one aspect, the process requires extracting from a boiled tea of Rauvolfia vomitoria foliage and/or roots and Citrus aurantium fruit an active fraction made by filtering the boiled tea and concentrating the supernatant. In one embodiment, the fraction is concentrated by freeze drying the supernatant.

Rauvolfia vomitoria occurs widely in coastal and inland parts of tropical West Africa. The species is a well-known medicinal plant used by different peoples in Africa as the major or minor part of concoctions used for treating various ailments. Sofowora, Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa, Wiley and Sons, Chichester (1982); Burkill, The Useful Plants of Tropical West Africa, Vol. 1 (1985).

Rauvolfia vomitoria was previously investigated for alkaloid content, especially for those with hypotensive and anti-inflammatory properties. Chatteijee & Bandyopadhyay (1979) Ind. J. Chem. 28B: 87-88; Amer & Court (1980) Phytochemistry 19: 1833-1836; Kweifio-Okai (1991) J. Ethno Pharmacology 33: 263-267. Citrus aurantium is reported as having a weight reduction effect when combined with a strict diet. Preuss et al. (2002) J. Med. 33:247-264. In addition, C. aurantium has been shown to be radioprotective because it is rich in flavonoids with anti-oxidative activity. Hosseinimehr et al. (2003) J. Rad. Res. (Tokyo) 44:237-241.

This invention provides a biologically active composition consisting essentially of a liquid extract obtained from Rauvolfia vomitoria and Citrus aurantium. In one aspect, the extract is separated from the boiled leaves and stems of Rauvolfia vomitoria and the boiled fruit of Citrus aurantium. The extract can be combined with a carrier, such as a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Alternatively and/or additionally, an effective amount of an agent that lowers blood glucose levels can be added to the composition.

This invention also provides a method of treating a disorder associated with abnormally elevated glucose levels in a subject by administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of the extract or a pharmaceutical composition containing the extract. As used in this context, to “treat” means to alleviate the symptoms associated with abnormally high levels of glucose. Such conditions include, but are not limited to the diabetes Type II, abnormal steraroyl-CoA desaturase activity, hyperphagia, abnormal lipid mobilization, abnormal fatty acid profile from the eye of the subject, ulcers and a glucosuria. One of skill in the art can note when the object of the method has been obtained by noting a reduction in glucose in the patient's blood or urine or an amelioration of symptoms such as normalization of blood pressure, disappearance of bulbous swellings around varicose veins, etc.

Any mode of administration can be used to deliver the extract....
 


Related:

CN102627641
Method for extracting multiple alkaloids from rauvolfia vomitoria
Inventor: FENGSHENG ZHAO / JINGLI YUE

The invention discloses a method for extracting multiple alkaloids from rauvolfia vomitoria. The method comprises the following steps of: adding acid-containing ethanol aqueous solution into root powder of the rauvolfia vomitoria, stirring and filtering to obtain leach liquor; concentrating the leach liquor, adsorbing with non-polar macroporous adsorption resin, washing and eluting with 40 percent ethanol and 80 percent ethanol; collecting eluate respectively, concentrating and then adsorbing with weakly acidic cation exchange resin, washing and eluting with 50 percent ethanol; collecting eluate respectively, adjusting pH to be 3 by using concentrated acid, concentrating and then adsorbing with a C18 reversed phase chromatography medium and eluting with the ethanol aqueous solution with gradually increasing concentration; and collecting the eluate in stages respectively, combining the parts with higher single alkaloid purity in the eluate respectively, concentrating to obtain solid, adding an organic solvent to crystallize to obtain crystals of yohimbine, ajmaline, reserpoid, reserpine and rescinnamine. According to the method, five alkaloids can be extracted from a plant at most at one time; and the method has the advantages of few steps, less dosage of the used organic solvent, low pollution and simple required equipment.


CN101103671 / CN100579359
Method for artificial breeding and planting rauvolfia vomitoria afzel
Inventor: JIASHENG MA



https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rauvolfia_vomitoria

Rauvolfia vomitoria

Rauvolfia vomitoria, the poison devil's-pepper,[3] is a plant species in the genus Rauvolfia. It is native to tropical Africa from Senegal east to Sudan + Tanzania, south to Angola; and naturalized in China, Bangladesh, and Puerto Rico.[4]

2,6-Dimethoxybenzoquinone is a benzoquinone, a toxic chemical compound found in R. vomitoria.[5]

Every part of the tree is toxic.[6] It has been identified as an invasive species in Hawai’i (O’ahu).[7]



http://www.westafricanplants.senckenberg.de/images/pictures/apocynaceae_rauvolfia_vomitora_josstev_1334_4b0a3f.jpg

rauvolfiavomitoria

rauvolfiavomitoria






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