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May 2018

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UPDATED 19 MAY

http://www.fox5ny.com/news/hotel-pools-linked-to-many-disease-outbreaks

Hotel pools linked to many disease outbreaks

A study from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention find a third of all recreational waterborne disease outbreaks occurred in hotel pools or hot tubs and water play venues.

Between 2000 and 2014 the CDC recorded nearly 500 disease outbreaks related to recreational water use that resulted in more than 27,000 illnesses and eight deaths.  Hotels were the leading setting, associated with 157 of the outbreaks...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=124&v=E_He0650klE
https://srsroccoreport.com/the-shale-oil-ponzi-scheme-explained-how-lousy-shale-economics-will-pull-down-the-u-s-economy/

THE SHALE OIL PONZI SCHEME EXPLAINED: How Lousy Shale Economics Will Pull Down The U.S. Economy

Few Americans realize that the U.S. economy is being propped up by the Shale Oil Industry.  However, the shale oil industry is nothing more than a Ponzi Scheme, so when it collapses, it will take down the U.S. economy with it.  Unfortunately, the reason few Americans understand how lousy the economics are in producing shale oil and gas is due to the misinformation and propaganda being put out by the industry and energy analysts.

I am quite surprised how bank analysts and brokerage firms can continue to fund the shale oil and gas or advise clients to purchase stock when the industry is behaving just like the Bernie Madoff Ponzi Scheme.  The only big difference is that the U.S. Shale Industry is a Ponzi at least four times greater than Madoff’s $65 billion fiasco... https://shaleprofile.com/ https://pjmedia.com/trending/yahoo-and-aol-can-now-read-your-emails-access-your-bank-records/ Yahoo and AOL Just Gave Themselves the Right to Read Emails, Access Bank Records http://www.thecommonsenseshow.com/americas-is-in-her-final-days-and-this-is-her-last-line-of-defense/ America’s Is In Her Final Days and This Is Her Last Line of Defense Why There Must Be a Guerrilla War There are a total of 1,455,375 active personnel in the US military. The United States has over 200,000 troops stationed in 144 countries. These 200,000 men and women will not likely be a factor in the coming conflict and will prove to be in grave danger in the coming conflict. https://www.rutherford.org/publications_resources/john_whiteheads_commentary/the_age_of_petty_tyrannies The Age of Petty Tyrannies By John W. Whitehead “Whether the mask is labeled fascism, democracy, or dictatorship of the proletariat, our great adversary remains the apparatus—the bureaucracy, the police, the military. Not the one facing us across the frontier of the battle lines, which is not so much our enemy as our brothers’ enemy, but the one that calls itself our protector and makes us its slaves. No matter what the circumstances, the worst betrayal will always be to subordinate ourselves to this apparatus and to trample underfoot, in its service, all human values in ourselves and in others.”—Simone Weil, French philosopher and political activist We labor today under the weight of countless tyrannies, large and small, carried out in the name of the national good by an elite class of government officials who are largely insulated from the ill effects of their actions. We, the middling classes, are not so fortunate. We find ourselves badgered, bullied and browbeaten into bearing the brunt of their arrogance, paying the price for their greed, suffering the backlash for their militarism, agonizing as a result of their inaction, feigning ignorance about their backroom dealings, overlooking their incompetence, turning a blind eye to their misdeeds, cowering from their heavy-handed tactics, and blindly hoping for change that never comes. The overt signs of the despotism exercised by the increasingly authoritarian regime that passes itself off as the United States government are all around us: warrantless surveillance of Americans’ private phone and email conversations by the NSA; SWAT team raids of Americans’ homes; shootings of unarmed citizens by police; harsh punishments meted out to schoolchildren in the name of zero tolerance; drones taking to the skies domestically; endless wars; out-of-control spending; militarized police; roadside strip searches; roving TSA sweeps; privatized prisons with a profit incentive for jailing Americans; fusion centers that collect and disseminate data on Americans’ private transactions; and militarized agencies with stockpiles of ammunition, to name some of the most appalling. Yet as egregious as these incursions on our rights may be, it’s the endless, petty tyrannies inflicted on an overtaxed, overregulated, and underrepresented populace that occasionally nudge a weary public out of their numb indifference and into a state of outrage. Consider, for example, that federal and state governments now require on penalty of a fine that individuals apply for permission before they can grow exotic orchids, host elaborate dinner parties, gather friends in one’s home for Bible studies, give coffee to the homeless, let their kids manage a lemonade stand, keep chickens as pets, or braid someone’s hair, as ludicrous as that may seem... [ Cont'd ] https://sputniknews.com/business/201801191060881605-kasperskaya-bitcoin-us-intelligence/ Bitcoin is a 'Project of US Intelligence,' Kaspersky Lab Co-Founder Claims Natalya Kaspersky claimed that Bitcoin was designed to provide financing for US and British intelligence activities around the world. The expert called the cryptocurrency "dollar 2.0."... Blaargh... https://www.eatthis.com/ https://www.eatthis.com/donald-trump-eating-habits/?utm_medium=cpc&utm_source=MGID-IM&utm_campaign=mgid-im&utm_term=5627352s3418&utm_content=2514192 12 Things Trump Does When He Dines Out The Secret Service might be making some runs to McDonald's. By Brittany Anas https://www.tohoku.ac.jp/en/press/eyes_in_the_back_of_the_head.html The brain may perceive objects outside of our view - Eyes in the back of the head Implicit Learning Experimental setup to investigate implicit learning of surroundings. Spatial representations of surroundings, including those outside the visual field, are crucial for guiding movement in a three-dimensional world. The visual system appears to provide sufficient information for movement despite our visual field being limited to the frontal region. However, this theory had not been scientifically tested until now. A group led by Professor Satoshi Shioiri from the Research Institute of Electrical Communication at Tohoku University in Japan, used a visual search experiment to demonstrate that the human visual system indeed has the ability to perceive things beyond the limits of the visual field.... https://www.theguardian.com/science/2018/may/14/new-chemical-compound-stops-common-cold-in-its-tracks-rhinovirus Scientists stop rhinovirus in its tracks, but a cure for common cold still a long way off Nikola K S Davis ...The trick, the authors say, is to develop drugs that interact with one of the enzymes within our cells - an approach that makes it harder for the virus to become drug-resistant. "Viruses hijack the host to make more copies of themselves. This enzyme is one of the host enzymes that the virus hijacks," said Roberto Solari, visiting professor at the National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, and a co-author of the study. Writing in the journal Nature Chemistry, a team of researchers based around the UK report how they looked at molecules that interact with a human enzyme that attaches a type of fatty acid molecule on to proteins. While two of these molecules on their own had little effect on the enzyme, the team found that when they were chemically stitched together they became remarkably potent in preventing the enzyme from working as normal. Solari said that is important, since the virus uses the enzyme to assemble the protein coat which surrounds the genetic material of the virus. "What we found is if we block the addition of this fat, the coat doesn't assemble so the virus doesn't package its genes into its coat," he said. "The virus still makes its own genes, it makes the coat, but the coat can't assemble so the virus can't replicate - you actually don't make infectious particles." The team say the molecule appears to completely prevent the virus from replicating, whether it is added one hour before, one hour after or at the same time as the cells are infected, and that it remains effective up to three hours after infection. The approach was also found to prevent the replication of other viruses in the same family as rhinovirus - including polio and foot-and-mouth disease.... ...tests have so far only been carried out on human cells in a dish... https://www.rt.com/news/427036-crimean-bridge-time-lapse/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=170&v=hDbR-_tEmr4 27 months in 3 minutes: How Russia built Europe’s longest bridge (TIMELAPSE VIDEO) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BJNgpVTec2k [ @ 4:00 -- Israel Created Hamas ] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cDRPZclNf98 George Galloway explaining to a Jew that they have no right in Palestine The Balfour Declaration of 1917 (dated 2 November 1917) was a letter from the United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Baron Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland. His Majesty's government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. The statement was issued through the efforts of Chaim Weizmann and Nahum Sokolow, the principal Zionist leaders based in London; as they had asked for the reconstitution of Palestine as "the" Jewish national home, the declaration fell short of Zionist expectations. "He who passively accepts evil is as much involved in it as he who helps to perpetrate it. He who accepts evil without protesting against it is really cooperating with it." - Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. "If you are neutral in situations of injustice, you have chosen the side of the oppressor" Bishop Desmond Tutu "Every time anyone says that Israel is our only friend in the Middle East, I can't help but think that before Israel, we had no enemies in the Middle East." Fr. John Sheehan of the Jesuit Order https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sG6yzQ1Sm-o&feature=youtu.be SHOCKING! What Every Christian Needs To Know About Islam Sheila is joined by Leo Hohmann, author of Stealth Invasion, and they blow the lid off of why Americans have been kept largely in the dark about the radical plans to permanently transform their nation. https://medium.com/@matteozago/why-the-net-giants-are-worried-about-the-web-3-0-44b2d3620da5 Why the net giants are worried about the Web 3.0 CN102144757 Bean sprout production method based on audio-frequency control technology Inventor(s): SONGMING ZHU; WEIMING CAI; HUINONG HE; MINSHENG ZHOU, et al. Applicant(s): UNIV ZHEJIANG The invention discloses a bean sprout production method based on an audio-frequency control technology... Summary of the Invention The purpose of the present invention is to overcome the deficiencies of the prior art and provide a method for producing bean sprouts based on audio frequency regulation technology. The method for producing bean sprouts based on the audio frequency modulation technology is: 5 growth stages of bean sprouts with foaming species, small buds, two buds, middle buds and long vegetables; In the foaming stage, the water is changed every 3 hours or so, and the water temperature is Controlled at 23 ~ 24 °C, while applying the frequency of 3000 ~ 3500hz, the volume of the sound waves in the 80 ~ 100db continuous stimulation, the stimulation time is 9 ~ 12 hours; In the small bud stage, once every 2 hours watering, water temperature Control at 27 ~ 28 °C, while applying the frequency of 1500 ~ 2000hz, the sound volume of 80 ~ 100db of the sound waves for continuous stimulation, stimulation time of 21 to 24 hours; In the second bud stage, once every 2 hours watering, water temperature Control at 27 ~ 28 °C, while applying the frequency of 1500 ~ 2000hz, the volume of 80db-100db sound waves for continuous stimulation, stimulation time of 9 to 12 hours; In bud stage, every 2 hours watering once, water temperature Control at 29 ~ 30 °C, while applying the frequency of 2000 ~ 2500hz, the volume of sound waves of 80 ~ 100db for continuous stimulation, stimulation time is 21 to 24 hours; In the long vegetable stage, watering once every 2 hours, water temperature Control at 30 to 31 °C, simultaneous application Frequency of 2000 ~ 2500hz, the volume of 80 ~ 100db continuous acoustic stimulus, the time is 9 to 12 hours. The bean sprouts are mung bean sprouts, bean sprouts, black bean sprouts or peanut bean sprouts. Example 1 ... the production of bean sprouts based on the present invention can be found to increase by more than 10%. Example 2 ... the yield of the bean sprouts produced based on the present invention can be found to increase by more than 18%. Example 3 ... the production of bean sprouts based on the present invention increased by more than 15%. From: Mbking42 <mbking42@aol.com> [Add to Address Book] Subject: Finally a Car that Runs on Water, Webcast The inventor I believe that made the breakthrough, Walter Jenkins, will be on a webcast tonight: https://www.theothersideofmidnight.com/2018-05-05_walterjenkins/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vNzW0zN7XzM Nietzsche’s Prediction About the Jews A fascinating section of “Daybreak”. Take away from it what you will. P.S. I don't think this prediction is pro or anti-semitic. Nietzsche is just telling what he thinks will happen from as "objective" a standpoint as possible. "I wish Karl would start accumulating capital instead of just writing about it." -- Karl Marx' mother UPDATED 17 MAY Heaps mo' Snacks for Thought ! https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/05/180516123644.htm New device could increase battery life of electronics by a hundred-fold Among the chief complaints for smartphone, laptop and other battery-operated electronics users is that the battery life is too short and -- in some cases -- that the devices generate heat. Now, a group of physicists led by Deepak K. Singh, associate professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Missouri, has developed a device material that can address both issues. The team has applied for a patent for a magnetic material that employs a unique structure -- a "honeycomb" lattice that exhibits distinctive electronic properties... "Semiconductor diodes and amplifiers, which often are made of silicon or germanium, are key elements in modern electronic devices," said Singh, who also serves as the principal investigator of the Magnetism and Superconductivity Research Laboratory at MU. "A diode normally conducts current and voltage through the device along only one biasing direction, but when the voltage is reversed, the current stops. This switching process costs significant energy due to dissipation, or the depletion of the power source, thus affecting battery life. By substituting the semiconductor with a magnetic system, we believed we could create an energetically effective device that consumes much less power with enhanced functionalities." Singh's team developed a two-dimensional, nanostructured material created by depositing a magnetic alloy, or permalloy, on the honeycomb structured template of a silicon surface. The new material conducts unidirectional current, or currents that only flow one way. The material also has significantly less dissipative power compared to a semiconducting diode, which is normally included in electronic devices. The magnetic diode paves the way for new magnetic transistors and amplifiers that dissipate very little power, thus increasing the efficiency of the power source. This could mean that designers could increase the life of batteries by more than a hundred-fold. Less dissipative power in computer processors could also reduce the heat generated in laptop or desktop CPUs. "Although more works need to be done to develop the end product, the device could mean that a normal 5-hour charge could increase to more than a 500-hour charge," Singh said. "The device could also act as an 'on/off switch' for other periphery components such as closed-circuit cameras or radio frequency attenuators, which reduces power flowing through a device. We have applied for a U.S. patent and have begun the process of incorporating a spin-off company to help us take the device to market." https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/aelm.201700500 Advanced Electronic Materials, 2018; 4 (5): 1700500 DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201700500 Magnetic Diode Behavior at Room Temperature in 2D Honeycombs. Brock Summers, Ashutosh Dahal, Deepak K. Singh Abstract The magnetic analog of a semiconductor diode, demonstrating unidirectional electrical transport, is a highly desirable functionality for spintronics application, as it can play a dual role as magnetic memory device and logic element. However, creating such a functional material or device with operation ability at room temperature in the absence of any external tuning parameter, for instance a magnetic field, is a challenge till date. In this study, the finding of semiconductor diode-type rectification in a 2D honeycomb lattice, made of an ultrasmall permalloy magnet with a typical length of ˜12 nm is reported. The unidirectional electrical transport behavior, characterized by the asymmetric colossal enhancement in differential conductivity at a modest current application of ˜10–15 µA, persists to T = 300 K in honeycomb lattice of a moderate thickness of ˜6 nm. Importantly, the unidirectional biasing arises without the application of a magnetic field with an output power, ˜30 nW, by three orders of magnitude smaller than a semiconductor junction diode. Together, these properties provide a new vista for spintronics research. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/advs.201700856\ Advanced Science, 2018; 5 (4): 1700856 DOI: 10.1002/advs.201700856 Spin Solid versus Magnetic Charge Ordered State in Artificial Honeycomb Lattice of Connected Elements. Artur Glavic, et al. Abstract The nature of magnetic correlation at low temperature in two-dimensional artificial magnetic honeycomb lattice is a strongly debated issue. While theoretical researches suggest that the system will develop a novel zero entropy spin solid state as T ? 0 K, a confirmation to this effect in artificial honeycomb lattice of connected elements is lacking. This study reports on the investigation of magnetic correlation in newly designed artificial permalloy honeycomb lattice of ultrasmall elements, with a typical length of ˜12 nm, using neutron scattering measurements and temperature-dependent micromagnetic simulations. Numerical modeling of the polarized neutron reflectometry data elucidates the temperature-dependent evolution of spin correlation in this system. As temperature reduces to ˜7 K, the system tends to develop novel spin solid state, manifested by the alternating distribution of magnetic vortex loops of opposite chiralities. Experimental results are complemented by temperature-dependent micromagnetic simulations that confirm the dominance of spin solid state over local magnetic charge ordered state in the artificial honeycomb lattice with connected elements. These results enable a direct investigation of novel spin solid correlation in the connected honeycomb geometry of 2D artificial structure. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pm_HkficwQA George Galloway tears into Donald Trump over Iran nuclear deal decision in opening rant. George called him "a certifiable madman who has just strapped the world into a roller coaster cart which is headed for war." https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ddFvjfvPnqk NASA Live Stream - Earth From Space (Full Screen) | ISS LIVE FEED target="_blank" http://rense.com/general96/ebola-the-congo-already-had-120-deaths-in-march.html Ebola - The Congo Already Had 120 Deaths In March By Patricia Doyle PhD http://www.isid.org https://www.challenges.fr/monde/cor-plus-de-120-deces-inexpliques-dans-le-nord-est-de-la-rd-congo_586640 https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-does-ebola-keep-showing-up-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo/ http://www.who.int/news-room/detail/11-05-2018-who-and-partners-working-with-national-health-authorities-to-contain-new-ebola-outbreak-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2018/05/ebola-outbreak-drc-three-four-months/560237/ Ebola Treatments * Cobalt Hexamine vs Ebola ** Ebola Patents ** ROWEN : Ozone vs Ebola ** Ozone Therapy * https://www.veteranstoday.com/2018/05/12/netanyahu-to-putin-iran-seeks-to-destroy-6-million-jews/ Netanyahu to Putin: Iran seeks to destroy 6 million Jews No matter how you cut it, Netanyahu lacks the moral and political backbone to be a head of a state. by Jonas E. Alexis You can’t make this stuff up: Netanyahu, the problem child in the Middle East, has told Vladimir Putin that Iran has vowed to annihilate six million Jews! If you think that Netanyahu would never come up with something so dumb, then you are underestimating Netanyahu’s fantastical imagination. This is his exact word: “There is a country in the Middle East, Iran, which calls for the destruction of another 6 million Jews.”[1] No one with an ounce of brain cells knocking together would invent such a stupid statement. The simple fact is that outside of Israel, Iran has the largest Jewish population in the Middle East. Moreover, “Jews feel safer in Iran than in US & EU despite Tel Aviv-Tehran tensions.”[2] And they have been there for centuries! How does Iran plan to annihilate those people? Who is Netanyahu really fooling this time? his finest puppet (Donald Trump)? When Netanyahu made similar statements back in 2015, Iranian officials responded by saying: “It is truly, truly regrettable that bigotry gets to the point of making allegations against an entire nation which has saved Jews three times in its history…”[3]... target="_blank" https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1197&v=JFLepaay-4A The Dark & Delusional World of Benjamin Netanyahu Netanyahu is a criminal and the world knows it but Americans keep on giving him their tax dollars so he can kill more non-Jews. So who is to blame? Netanyahu or Americans for being so stupid? You answer the question. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oaL3E0KNxN8 The Exclusive Interview with Joel Skousen: The "US War on Terror" and coming WW3 Joel Skousen is the Renowned author of Strategic Relocation - he's a political scientist and commentator and expert in geopolitics. This two hour interview in which we cover a wide range of topics, from the US created "War on Terror", the build-up to WW3, false-flag school shootings, ISIS, martial law, underground military bases, space wars, Russia, China, North Korea and much more... target="_blank" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=saCdvAp5cow How a Single Swedish Submarine Defeated the US Navy Interesting comments too : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J1OgMXKJ4T8 Jerusalem, the Cup of Trembling That Intoxicates the World https://www.ewg.org/foodnews/dirty-dozen.php Dirty Dozen -- EWG's 2018 Shopper's Guide to Pesticides in Produce 1. Strawberries 2. Spinach 3. Nectarines 4. Apples 5. Grapes 6. Peaches 7. Cherries 8. Pears 9. Tomatoes 10. Celery 11. Potatoes 12. Sweet Bell Peppers * A small amount of sweet corn, papaya and summer squash sold in the United States is produced from genetically modified seeds... https://www.wired.com/story/darpas-next-challenge-a-grueling-underground-journey/ Darpa's Next Challenge? A Grueling Underground Journey https://www.darpa.mil/program/darpa-subterranean-challenge DARPA Subterranean (SubT) Challenge Dr. Timothy Chung The DARPA Subterranean (SubT) Challenge aims to develop innovative technologies that would augment operations underground. The SubT Challenge will explore new approaches to rapidly map, navigate, search, and exploit complex underground environments, including human-made tunnel systems, urban underground, and natural cave networks. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=47WtItcUKAI&bpctr=1526497085 TRUMP IS THE SWAMP / Trump's Jewish Elite MAFIA & The 5 Dancing Israelis How much proof does it take for America to see who is ruling her? How much proof does it take for Americans to see who Donald Trump really is? This does not mean that Hillary would have been better, it simply means that there has always been a plan in place. They are all sucking America dry, while the Goyim continue to think they have a savior. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3O2qCQU7Cac How To Hügelkultur AMAZING Grow Method For Raised Beds Vegetable Gardens - Organic & Cheap This is how I build a Hugelkultur raised bed vegetable garden or in other words mound culture/hill culture whereby soil is mounded over logs, sticks, and other organic materials to create a superior growing area for fruit and vegetables. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wc1mZf7SWAA George Galloway Vs EVERYONE (MEGA Compilation!) This guy never take a day off from constantly arguing with anything that moves!! lol pretty funny tho! enjoy! UPDATED 13 MAY Heaps mo' Snacks for Thought ! https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=3&v=D1WZrnCcH24 Cancer cells destroyed by First Immune GcMAF (gcmaf.eu) David Noakes GcMAF eradicates cancer; cells seen via microscopes and time lapse photography. This is a world wide first, and a scientific research paper named "Multifaceted immunotherapeutic effects of GcMAF on human breast cancer cells" peer reviewed, and published by us in the January 2013 Immunology Conference in San Diego. Human MCF7 breast cancer cells are shown both in a corrugated layer on the surface below, and as irregular "fingers" above. Macrophages are small round circles added at the bottom left. They do nothing until the First Immune GcMAF is added. Time lapse photography over 60 hours shows the cancer monolayer below first changing from corrugated to smooth from the bottom left as the cancer is destroyed; then the cancer "fingers" are also eaten and destroyed by the macrophages. This is part of the assays performed on batches of our GcMAF, and are carried out in First Immune (gcmaf.eu's) laboratories as part of our everyday production. We supply 5,000 patients, 300 doctors in 30 nations. This confirms the research paper "Effects of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor on human breast cancer cells," published in the journal Anticancer Research 2012 Jan;32(1):45-52, in which they also kindly used our First Immune GcMAF for their experiments. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PmvCRoIbObE How to Make GcMAF at Home Tutorial on making GcMAF at home for a fraction of the cost. Please subscribe to our channel for more future videos and valuable information. [ & Comments ] Biosludge "Fertilizer" = Cannibalism+Cancercide : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vkNoqTAGTag CounterThink with Mike Adams: Dr. David Lewis BioSludge Warning http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-5701167/Scientists-baffled-discovering-signs-elusive-time-crystals-kids-toy.html Scientists baffled after discovering signs of elusive time crystals in a kids' toy [ MAP : MonoAmmonium Phosphate ] Hipstar Travel Pack http://www.artmatrix.us/ The best hands-free travel cart that goes wherever adventure takes you!.. ART MATRIX LLC is developing the HipStar™, a product that will change the way hikers, campers, backpackers move by literally taking the weight off their shoulders... According to the Mountain Tactical Institute’s research, there are five “thumb rules” discovered: 1) One pound on your feet equals five pounds on your back. 2) One pound on your feet equals five percent more energy expended. 3) Every one percent of your body weight makes you six seconds slower per mile. 4) Ten percent grade incline cuts your speed in half. 5) Going up slows you down twice as much as going down speeds you up. Every percent of incline adds 15 seconds to your mile pace. Every percent of decline takes 8 sec. off of your mile pace. .. HipStar™? solves a basic problem in five unique ways: In a professional or military setting, the HipStar™ can be used to transport vital equipment and supplies over almost any terrain by rolling it on the ground or carrying it on the target="_blank" user’s back. ?According to the Mountain Tactical Institute’s research, there are five “thumb rules” discovered: 1) One pound on your feet equals five pounds on your back. 2) One pound on your feet equals five percent more energy expended. 3) Every one percent of your body weight makes you six seconds slower per mile. 4) Ten percent grade incline cuts your speed in half. 5) Going up slows you down twice as much as going down speeds you up. Every percent of incline adds 15 seconds to your mile pace. Every percent of decline takes 8 sec. off of your mile pace. ??What is the weight limits of 'HipStar'? The HipStar™ will be available in three versions: Light, Medium, and Heavy-duty. The heavy-duty model can easily hold up to 80 lbs (or even more) of gear with only 6-8 lbs. of force in cart mode. It can be used by military or heavy hikers/tourists. This group is used to carry large heavy backpacks (50-60 lbs.) .. ?1. How do you make fifty pounds feel like one pound?A suitcase balances a lot of weight on one axle - the same design used in the HipStar. 2. How do you keep your hands free?...The HipStar attaches to your hip and leaves enough room behind you so your heels don’t hit it when you are walking or running. 3. How do you keep it from bumping into you when you walk?... The HipStar’s shock absorbers and flexible harness even out those disturbing walking motions for a comfortable experience. 4. What do you do when you hit uneven terrain?The HipStar folds down into a backpack in seconds... US9365224 COLLAPSIBLE CARRYING DEVICE Inventor: KOSHUTIN IGOR [US] A collapsible and expandable carrying device for pulling, carrying, or otherwise transporting luggage, cargo, or any other items. The carrying device comprises a frame comprised of and combined with additional telescopic rods for adjustment of parameters for ease of use. The frame is pivotally attached to a handle, support straps, shoulder straps, and/or a belt to be attached to a user's waist. The device is meant for both short and long travel, and it allows for a user to vary angles and lengths of the constituent parts in order to minimize gravitational load on the user and optimize the force of the center of gravity from the load being carried. Owwwy ! Owwwy ! Nuke Evile Palestine !!! Philistines 2 : Vaganal Hebes 0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=66&v=bjBK7wTeLCU Palestinians take down 2 IDF drones with rocks and slingshots http://www.businessinsider.com/carbon-dioxide-record-human-health-effects-2018-5 The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere just hit its highest level in 800,000 years and scientists predict deadly consequences Kevin Loria The average concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere just topped 410 parts per million, according to measurements from Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. It's the highest CO2 level in the 800,000 years for which we have good data. This is expected to have a catastrophic target="_blank" effect on human health and the planet itself. ...For the first time in recorded history, the average monthly level of CO2 in the atmosphere exceeded 410 parts per million in April, according to observations at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii.../ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3BUUy1C0_4g Hillary Clinton Exposed, Movie She Banned From Theaters Full Movie https://www.thecollegefix.com/post/44834/ Many studies’ results cannot be reproduced, scholars warn Mark McGreal - UCLA https://www.nas.org/projects/irreproducibility_report The NAS published the full report The Irreproducibility Crisis of Modern Science: Causes, Consequences, and the Road to Reform on April 17, 2018. We invite readers to consider our findings and submit responses in the form of articles via email to contact@nas.org. These articles will be posted on the home page as well as in the Forum section below. A reproducibility crisis afflicts a wide range of scientific and social-scientific disciplines, from epidemiology to social psychology. Improper use of statistics, arbitrary research techniques, lack of accountability, political groupthink, and a scientific culture biased toward producing positive results together have produced a critical state of affairs. Many supposedly scientific results cannot be reproduced in subsequent investigations. This study examines the different aspects of the reproducibility crisis of modern science. The report also includes a series of policy recommendations, scientific and political, for alleviating the reproducibility crisis. http://www.naturalmedicine.net.nz/ The New Zealand Journal of Natural Medicine Many, many subjects obscured by mainstream medicine. http://kunstler.com/podcast/kunstlercast-303-jack-albert-unwinding-human-predicament/ Jack Alpert is director of Stanford Knowledge Integration Lab, a Lab which he started in 1978 at Stanford University. In 1992 the Lab left Stanford and became a non profit research foundation. The research focused on how people gather and process information to understand dynamic systems. Over the years the Lab has transitioned its focus to the relationship between human cognition and civilization viability. The current work is on discovering and implementing behavior that “changes our course” and creates a sustainable civilization. Mr. Alpert predicts that the human population will be reduced by 90 percent before the year 2100. Direct Download: http://traffic.libsyn.com/kunstlercast/KunstlerCast_303.mp3 http://www.skil.org/ Stanford Knowledge Integration Laborator Tour of the Human Predicament and What to Do About it We live in exciting times. It's my belief that "you personally" will most likely die of starvation or conflict between 2040 to 2075. You will experience a collapse of human civilization, a 90% die-off of humans, a destruction of the ecosystem, a loss of access to mined and drilled resources, and a dark age from which your descendent's will not reemerge. If your kids survive to 2100 they will have been cannibals and will live like 17th century serfs -- no electricity, no running water, no schools, no medicine, and life will be short, nasty, and brutish. Your first task in preparing for this tour is to decide if I have any good reasons for believing this. a) If you think I don't, for example technology will solve all my worries, then your view of the future means we don't have to change civilization's course. b) If after investigation, you find that I have good reasons, your second task is to use what you have learned about how civilizations develop to chart a different course. To understand the causes and cures of "temporal blindness" and thus create "cognition based solutions to global problems" https://www.publicintegrity.org/2014/07/31/15161/nuclear-weapons-lab-employee-fired-after-publishing-scathing-critique-arms-race Nuclear weapons lab employee fired after publishing scathing critique of the arms race Los Alamos lets a 17-year employee go after retroactively classifying his published article By Douglas Birch ...They claimed that the article, an impassioned critique of the political theories undergirding the nuclear arms race and a defense of President Obama’s embrace of a nuclear weapons-free future, contained classified information.... https://www.iiss.org/en/publications/survival/sections/2013-94b0/survival--global-politics-and-strategy-february-march-2013-3db7/55-1-02-doyle-a88b XXX By: James E. Doyle Publication: Survival: Global Politics and Strategy February–March 2013 / Pages: 7-34 / Volume: 55 / Edition number: 1 / Date: 01 February 2013 On 5 April 2009 in Prague, US President Barack Obama asserted the United States’ commitment to ‘seek the peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons’. He was adding his voice and the efforts of his administration to the growing number of world leaders, citizens and civil-society organisations seeking the elimination of such weapons.1 Banning the bomb has been a passionate and often popular crusade since its creation and first use, but in all that time it has never been a serious strategic objective for any state that possessed nuclear weapons.2 Why would a sitting US president take the political and strategic risk of declaring that progress towards this goal was a key element of America’s national security policy? There is no simple answer. A vast and complex set of interests, issues, theories, experiences and beliefs influences individual and national views on nuclear weapons, views that span the range of practical, political, moral and psychological understanding. Some recent arguments for eliminating nuclear weapons cover new ground and derive from the belief that the twenty-first-century global security environment differs fundamentally from that of the Cold War. Some proponents claim that historical changes have undermined the ability of nuclear weapons and deterrence to provide security benefits to most nations. Others challenge earlier calculations of the value of such weapons and assessments of the balance between the risks and benefits of a strategy of nuclear deterrence. Moreover, recent scholarship in the fields of history and deterrence theory questions deeply held beliefs regarding how nuclear weapons might influence the behaviour of national decision-makers. For example, declassified official documents from the Cold War reveal occasions when nuclear catastrophe was avoided by luck or seemingly random events rather than by the clearly identifiable operation of nuclear deterrence. There are further examples where existential characteristics of alerted nuclear forces appear to have caused crises that nearly resulted in their use. Finally, a growing number of strategists and technical and political elites regard nuclear weapons and deterrence theory as anachronistic. Some view the whole idea of nuclear weapons as out of step with today’s global threats, understanding of power and notions of human rights and the rule of law. Emerging structural changes in the international system (such as globalisation) undercut traditional theories of nuclear deterrence, while trends in information technology make possible much more agile and discriminate forms of military power. These arguments dovetail with others that assert that our greater understanding of the Earth’s environmental systems and humankind’s interdependence with those systems has made eliminating nuclear weapons more salient. A quite limited exchange of nuclear weapons against urban areas could trigger or accelerate global climatic catastrophe (cooling rather than warming), leading to the deaths of millions who had been uninvolved in the conflict itself. Many citizens, scientists and laymen alike, view nuclear-weapons abolition as an essential milestone in the development of human civilisation, a moral, ideological and practical campaign that could catalyse the transformation of international relations and improve the outlook for civilisation at a critical time. Humanity stands at an historic juncture, facing multiple interconnected threats within a compressed timescale. Besides the potential use of nuclear weapons, these include environmental degradation, resource scarcity, climate change, overpopulation, global disease pandemics, financial crises and natural disasters. The sort of international cooperation needed to reduce the number of nuclear weapons is similar to that needed to address these other transnational threats. Elimination of nuclear weapons would at least symbolically improve the chances of successfully addressing other existential threats. Obama, and others who seek a world without nuclear weapons, are right. Eliminating nuclear weapons is profoundly in the national-security interest of the United States and its allies and friends. Without major progress towards the elimination of nuclear arms, moreover, it is unlikely that the world will be able to avoid nuclear use for a prolonged period or respond adequately to security challenges related to climate change, resource scarcity and environmental degradation. The international community must reject the myths and expose the risks of the ideology of nuclear deterrence if it is to successfully meet the mutual global challenges of the twenty-first century. Challenging myths The United States and the other nuclear-armed nations have long maintained the threat of nuclear retaliation to deter acts of aggression against them. During the hostile ideological conflict of the Cold War, strategists on both sides concluded that only the prospect of mutually assured destruction would instil prudence and prevent decision-makers from issuing political or military challenges that bore a high risk of leading to military conflict.3 The strategy of nuclear deterrence was adopted in the West, reluctantly, as the least bad choice for managing what was believed to be an all-out struggle with Soviet Communism for domination of the planet and the social and political ideology of humankind. The ‘balance of terror’ and ‘mutually assured destruction’ (MAD) were not desirable strategies; they were viewed as the best that could be achieved given the circumstances of the Cold War. This was despite universal agreement that an exchange of nuclear attacks in response to aggression would inflict unprecedented damage on the citizens and territory of a nation.4 The use of nuclear weapons on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 embedded the overwhelmingly destructive nature of the bomb deeply into the collective psyche. Given no clear alternatives, national-security elites accommodated themselves to the paradox of nuclear deterrence and devised complex theoretical formalisms claiming that the risks of such a strategy were manageable and acceptable. In the world of nuclear deterrence, strategists were reconciled to the fact that, in order to be safe, you had to be willing to be crazy. As Winston Churchill put it in 1955, safety would ‘be the sturdy child of terror and survival the twin brother of annihilation’.5 The world of 2013 is dramatically different, and it will change even more profoundly in the decades ahead. The question today is whether a strategy based on nuclear deterrence continues to be the most effective way for governments to deal with international tensions and protect themselves, or whether alternative strategies with greater benefits and lower risks are available. The answer depends in part on how our understanding of nuclear deterrence has evolved and whether it remains as stable and salient as the majority of the strategic community believed it to be during the Cold War. Weapons of acceptable risk? No one doubts the catastrophic consequences of nuclear war. The rapid destruction of even a small number of major urban areas in any nation would bring unprecedented devastation and loss of life. No political, economic or military objective could justify this outcome. Nor does anyone believe that any human or technological device, system or tool will operate forever without failure or error. Yet we accept the risk of nuclear war that accompanies reliance on a strategy of nuclear deterrence because we perceive that risk to be low and because no mainstream school of strategic thought is promoting an alternative. The concept of risk includes the relationship between the consequences and probability of an event. If the consequences of an event are extremely negative, such as the devastation resulting from nuclear war, then you want the probability of the event occurring to be vanishingly small, as close to zero as possible. But the questions of the probability of nuclear war and what factors cause changes in this probability over time have seen little scientific or scholarly analysis. This is a glaring omission in strategic discourse. We know that nuclear deterrence can fail, either through poor decisions, escalation during a crisis, a series of mechanical and human errors, or malicious acts that lead to inadvertent use.6 It has nearly failed several times, the most famous example being the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. A chain of events leading to nuclear war can emerge even when no political leader believes it is in the interest of the state to initiate war, and both sides act in a manner intended to avoid it. The long list of nuclear accidents, malfunctions, mishaps, false alarms and close calls, often initiated by mechanical and human error, continues to grow. Such incidents include crashes of nuclear-armed aircraft and submarines, warning systems mistaking flocks of geese or reflections of sunlight for enemy missile launches, maintenance crews dropping tools and blowing up missile silos, and the temporary loss or misplacement of nuclear weapons.7 In 2002 it was revealed that two episodes during the Cuban Missile Crisis had brought nuclear war much closer than had been previously realised. On 26 October 1962, the destroyer USS Beale tracked and dropped small charges (the size of hand grenades) on a Soviet submarine to signal it to surface. Unknown to the US Navy, the submarine was armed with a nuclear torpedo with a 15-kilotonne warhead. Running out of air, the Soviet vessel was surrounded by American warships and desperately needed to surface, but was also considering defending itself. The captain ordered the arming of the nuclear torpedo, and the political officer concurred. Fortunately, the submarine brigade commander was also on board; he overruled the captain and defused the threat of a nuclear attack on the American fleet that would have almost surely brought on a nuclear response. The US military and intelligence services, too, were unaware that Soviet nuclear warheads for tactical missiles had already arrived in Cuba by September 1962. The shorter-range systems were operational by the time President John F. Kennedy was considering military action to destroy the missile bases in October. Based on incomplete knowledge, his military advisers considered the chances low that US conventional attacks on the Cuban missile sites would escalate to nuclear war. But they were unaware that the local Soviet commanders of the tactical-missile bases had been given the authority to launch their missiles if attacked. If US air-strikes had been ordered, as several high-ranking military leaders recommended, it is very likely that a nuclear exchange would have followed, potentially escalating to direct attacks on US and Soviet cities. The risk of deterrence failure remains significant. Nuclear deterrence is a complex, tightly coupled system. It is vulnerable to the unpredictable and uncontrollable nature of human error, mechanical failure and accident.8 If it fails, as nearly all such systems eventually do, it is likely to fail catastrophically and cause unprecedented human suffering. The American public (and the citizens of other nuclear-armed states) should demand that their governments conduct probabilistic risk assessments of scenarios that could result in the use of nuclear weapons.9 The nuclear, chemical, health and transportation industries are required to use this science to justify the safety of many actions and products and demonstrate that risks have been systematically identified and accounted for. Why should we demand less of the institutions we trust with our defence? Without an attempt to determine the probability of deterrence failure under variety of postulated scenarios, it is impossible to conduct a rational risk–benefit assessment of maintaining nuclear deterrence as a key element of national-security strategy. Weapons of peace and strength? Following the use of nuclear weapons against Japan, and in the absence of nuclear war between nuclear-armed nations, a powerful belief in the strategic benefits of nuclear weapons emerged. A central pillar of this belief was the assumption and assertion by most observers in the West that the US atomic bombings were the decisive factor in Japan’s decision to surrender. This allowed the claim that the use of atomic weapons actually saved tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of American and Japanese lives by ending the war without the need to invade the Japanese Home Islands. Supporters of nuclear deterrence also claim that it has proved to be one of the most effective tools ever devised to avoid warfare between major states.10 This belief is understandable, given the frequency of conventional war prior to the development of nuclear weapons and the relative absence of direct warfare between major powers after they acquired nuclear arms. The national-security elite of many nations has embraced these two views, that nuclear weapons can be decisive in conflict and can prevent conflict from occurring. Indeed, they have become canons of strategic thought, though curiously much more so among civilian defence experts than among military professionals who might be called on to the use the weapons. Recent scholarship has challenged both the logic and historical accuracy of arguments supporting the efficacy of nuclear weapons in the war against Japan and the view that nuclear deterrence is the leading cause of the absence of great-power war since 1945.11 For example, there is an emerging view among historians that the entry of the Soviet Union into the Pacific War on 9 August 1945 was more decisive in Japan’s decision to surrender than the threat of further atomic bombings. Japan was already largely defeated and lacked the armed strength or industrial capacity to fight a two-front war. The conventional bombing of Japanese cities had inflicted similar or greater devastation than the atomic bombs but had failed to prompt surrender. Moreover, careful analysis of the correspondence and behaviour of the Japanese leadership reveals a stronger reaction to the Soviet declaration than to the atomic bombings.12 Nor did nuclear weapons end interstate conflict, even between nuclear powers. The specific causes of the absence of major war on the European continent or between the United States and the Soviet Union from 1949 to 1991 cannot be known. But a disciplined thought experiment into the most likely causes of this relative calm would seek evidence that there was indeed an intent to use military force on the part of a state facing a nuclear power and that leaders failed to employ force because of their fear of nuclear war. Such evidence is scarce, especially outside the context of crises generated by accidents and misperceptions between great powers, which continued despite the presence of nuclear weapons. Moreover, during those crises the existence of nuclear weapons escalated the level of tension and put decision-makers in situations where the probability of miscalculation and human error was increased. This raises the possibility that the traditional view of nuclear deterrence as a crisis stabiliser may be incorrect. Another approach to investigating the role that nuclear weapons may have played in the Cold War calm would be to control for other plausible explanations of war-avoidance during the period. Could a lack of intent to use military force for less than vital national objectives be a significant cause of the peace? How about an aversion to the devastating consequences of major conventional war by leaders and citizens, many of whom had experienced it twice in their lifetimes?13 Finally, can one dismiss completely the notions that major war became less likely as a result of shifts in the political orientation of national governments, growing economic and cultural interdependence, or advances in information, life-sciences and environmental technology? Certainly it is plausible that regional security alliances, ongoing East–West security dialogues and the evolution of European integration played a role in avoiding a third world war.14 These alternative explanations have not been exhaustively explored and they cannot be dismissed. That Western scholars and strategists since the Cold War have largely neglected them is unfortunate. This is not to say that nuclear weapons played no role in keeping the peace, but it is reasonable to conclude that the absence of major war between states during this period had multiple causes and it is possible that nuclear weapons played only a minor role. Yet no thorough, peer-reviewed scholarly effort has been conducted which attempts to assign and defend accurate weights or degrees of influence that the various causes may have played in the historical outcome. It is clearly unreasonable to assert that evidence supports the claim that nuclear deterrence was the major cause of war-avoidance. This assertion is a belief, unsupported by anything approaching a strong, clear body of historically documented evidence. In fact, there is little reason to claim that the long peace since the Second World War is any more likely a blessing of the nuclear age than the logical conclusion of a substantial historical process, and one for which, contrary to proponents of nuclear deterrence, there are earlier precedents. Some scholars challenge even the view that the post-war peace is a true historical anomaly that needs any special explanation.15 The problem with the strength of the belief that nuclear deterrence caused the so-called long peace is that it biases strategic thinking in a way that increases faith in the value of nuclear weapons without firm evidence. This perception of high value increases tolerance for the risks of nuclear deterrence. The historical evidence that has emerged since the end of the Cold War further weakens the argument that nuclear deterrence was the leading cause of peace. After studying the Soviet Union’s political and military archives and interviewing members of the General Staff, scholars have learned that there was never any intent on the part of the Soviet Union to invade Western Europe or attack the United States. Despite the fact that conventional wisdom in the West claimed that the Soviets were working on a nuclear force posture that would enable them to win a nuclear war, the Soviet military leadership actually considered victory to be unattainable in any meaningful sense. According to first-hand interviews conducted after 1991, the Soviet General Staff understood the devastation that would result from a nuclear war and therefore did not develop a working definition of victory.16 Ironically, but not unsurprisingly, the Soviets perceived the United States to be preparing for a first strike. This predominance of worst-case mirror-imaging, with both sides assuming the other believed it could win, and was therefore likely to start a nuclear war, challenges the claim that nuclear weapons tend to improve communication between adversaries. In the US–Soviet case, it appears that just the opposite was true. Rather than contributing to war-avoidance, it appears that the strategy of nuclear deterrence was largely irrelevant to deterring a major US–Soviet or NATO–Soviet war. Neither side ever saw an advantage in initiating such a conflict in the first place.17 In addition to the uncertain contribution made by nuclear weapons to the absence of direct US–Soviet warfare during the Cold War, it is clear they have played a negligible role in the absence of conflict between Russia and the United States for the past 20 years. That peace is much more satisfactorily explained by the lack of fundamental political and ideological conflict and the development of a much greater range of mutual interests between the former adversaries. The low remaining risk of nuclear war between Russia and the United States is due far less to their nuclear deterrent relationship than it is to the inherent dangers of their continued deployment and operation of alert nuclear forces that are susceptible to accident, theft or inadvertent or unauthorised use. The contribution that nuclear weapons make today to deterring the most likely threats to the security of the United States and its allies is also dubious. America exists in a world where none of the other states possessing nuclear arms (with the possible exception of North Korea, the strength of whose rudimentary nuclear-weapons capabilities remains unknown) has state goals or conducts a foreign policy fundamentally hostile to the interests of the United States. Today, a terrorist attack is thought to be much more likely than an attack by another state. US nuclear weapons do not deter terrorist attacks. Al-Qaeda has attacked the United States, Great Britain, Pakistan, several NATO countries, and Israeli citizens and interests. Russia has also suffered terror attacks. All these states possess nuclear arms or are in alliance with nuclear powers. The existence of nuclear weapons in the age of global terrorism creates a very real security liability for all states. The key uncertainty in the current security environment is not whether nations will be attacked by terrorists and non-state actors but whether such actors will acquire the means to move from conventional to nuclear explosives, making their inevitable attacks of much greater consequence. To prevent nuclear attack by terrorists and sub-state actors, states must successfully devise a strategy of denying them the ability to acquire nuclear weapons. Current strategic trends run counter to this objective. More nuclear-weapons materials are being produced, more knowledge relevant to the construction of nuclear weapons is being dispersed, and terrorist organisations are becoming more interested in acquiring nuclear capabilities. The priorities and requirements of this approach are vastly different from a nuclear deterrent strategy. Such a strategy of denial places priority on achieving absolute minimal stockpiles of nuclear weapons and materials throughout the world and preventing their spread to other states, because that spread increases the likelihood that terrorists could acquire them. A denial strategy also emphasises the need for the most effective security possible for the nuclear weapons and nuclear materials that do exist. But perfect security for such items can never be achieved. In September 2007, for example, six cruise missiles armed with nuclear warheads were mistakenly carried on a B-52 strategic bomber from North Dakota to Louisiana, where they sat on a runway for hours without proper security because no one knew they were there.18 Such incidents highlight the fact that the ultimate objective of a denial strategy is the elimination of all nuclear weapons and weapons-grade fissile materials so that there are none that could fall into terrorist hands. In seeking a world free of nuclear weapons, Obama is also seeking the security of a world with a drastically lower risk of nuclear terrorism. Weapons of caution and stability? Another claim made by advocates of nuclear deterrence is that it induces caution during crises, makes leaders more risk-adverse and more hesitant to take military action, and allows the resolution of crises before they escalate into major military exchanges.19 This is perhaps the hope Churchill had in mind when he said ‘safety will be the sturdy child of terror’. Belief in the ability of nuclear weapons to ameliorate historical shortcomings in the war-avoidance skills of national leaders grew during the Cold War as no major war broke out and several US–Soviet crises passed without the use of such weapons. This was accepted as evidence of the benefits of nuclear deterrence. But explanations of war-avoidance during these episodes based on post-Cold War historical research, including first-hand interviews with participants, have little to do with the theoretical operation of nuclear deterrence and much more to do with luck and personal judgement. Former Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara noted that the decision-making process in Washington, as well as in Moscow and Havana, during the Cuban Missile Crisis was characterised by ‘misinformation, miscalculation, and misjudgment’.20 Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev’s decision to send to Cuba nuclear missiles that could strike the United States was a reckless, high-risk action, the sort of thing nuclear-deterrence theory predicts would be avoided. The Soviet Union knew by 1961 that the United States considered the Castro revolution to be a threat to US security and was willing to use military force to support counter-revolution. Moscow had also been informed by the United States that any Soviet transfer of offensive weaponry to Cuba would be opposed. Despite this, Khrushchev and his foreign minister, defence minister and commander of the Strategic Rocket Forces (all of whom understood the potential for nuclear war and its consequences) decided to offer nuclear missiles to Cuba.21 Adding to the risk of this decision was the manner in which it was implemented. Offensive missiles and 162 nuclear warheads were secretly transported to the island beginning in July 1962. Following growing concern about the intensifying Soviet–Cuban military relationship and the discovery of evidence that nuclear missiles might be headed to Cuba, US Attorney General Robert Kennedy met with Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin in Washington on 4 September. Dobrynin told Kennedy that he was instructed by Khrushchev to assure the US side that no surface-to-surface or offensive missiles would be placed in Cuba. The same day President Kennedy made a public statement that ‘the gravest of issues would arise’ if any offensive missiles were installed in Cuba. Three days later Dobrynin repeated to US Ambassador Adlai Stevenson the Soviet pledge that no offensive weapons were being sent to Cuba. Soviet leaders had to know that their attempted deception of individuals directly involved in crisis decision-making would further raise the stakes and narrow the room for potential negotiation. The discovery of the deception was sure to add anger and personal betrayal to the atmosphere of objective crisis, making compromise or movement towards re-establishing even the slimmest element of mutual trust more difficult. Examples of Cold War misjudgement, misperception and poor communication are not limited to the Soviet side and did not stop after the Cuban Missile Crisis. In November 1983, US leadership and intelligence services failed to grasp the true extent of Soviet anxiety regarding events surrounding a NATO command exercise code-named Able Archer. The Soviet Union began preparations for a nuclear attack on the United States because its leaders believed they had persuasive indications that Washington was on the verge of launching a surprise nuclear attack against them. The clearest evidence of the failure of the US side to realise how genuinely alarmed the Soviets were regarding the possibility of a US–NATO first strike was the decision to add new features to the annual Able Archer exercise in November 1983, including participation of the US president and vice president and simulated communications with the UK and NATO command in a practice drill that took NATO forces through a full-scale simulated release of nuclear weapons against the Soviets. According to US intelligence sources, on the night of 8 or 9 November KGB headquarters sent a flash cable to its intelligence officers in Western Europe advising them, incorrectly, that US forces in Europe had gone on alert and that troops at some bases were being mobilised. The cable speculated that the alert might be the beginning of a countdown to a surprise nuclear attack. According to Soviet and CIA sources, Soviet nuclear-capable aircraft in Poland and East Germany were placed on high alert status in response. In the following days the Soviets realised that there had been no actual alert of NATO forces, but they remained deeply concerned about US intentions and America’s potential to deliberately initiate a major war. Deterrence theory claims that the fear of nuclear devastation motivates military planners and political leaders to exercise caution and seek an accurate understanding of a nuclear rival’s intentions. The events surrounding Able Archer clearly cast doubt on this claim. The United States and its NATO allies either misperceived the Soviet sense of insecurity or deliberately ignored it. Had they been aware of Soviet fears and eager to moderate them, it is doubtful that some of the more alarming features such as the nuclear release drill would have been included in Able Archer 83. Underappreciated risks and costs It appears that the war scare that culminated with Able Archer 83 was a case of mutual intelligence failure and leadership misperception, shortcomings that remain all too frequent in the post-Cold War era. The fact that it happened 33 years after the beginning of a nuclear deterrent relationship between the United States and Soviet Union and brought the chance of nuclear war closer than at any time since the Cuban Missile Crisis is evidence against the so-called benefits of nuclear deterrence on national decision-making. What if there are no such benefits? What if nuclear-armed nations are just as prone to stumbling into war or choosing to use military force as they were prior to the acquisition of nuclear weapons? The fundamental difference then would be the magnitude of risk carried by states that choose to rely on nuclear deterrence. If deterrence fails, millions, or even hundreds of millions of civilians can be killed in less than a day. Without nuclear weapons the consequences of military conflict, even between great powers, would not be nearly as severe. Sustained use of conventional weapons can be devastating, and nuclear weapons could eventually be reconstituted and used, but the time needed for either to happen at least presents an opportunity to end hostilities before cities are destroyed. Nuclear weapons also inhibit the development of positive relations between former rivals, as the unsteady progress in the development of positive US–Russian relations since the end of the Cold War demonstrates. How deeply can two nations engage as partners while still proclaiming the capability and willingness to destroy one another, just in case? To be sure, sources of tension other than opposing nuclear forces exist in the US–Russian relationship, but fundamental change would be needed in the area of nuclear strategy before a true partnership could be established. In the years ahead, the value of a true security partnership with Russia and China for both the United States and Europe is likely to be very high indeed. Current US nuclear posture with respect to Russia seems to be completely out of step with declared policy. In 1994, Russia and the United States reached a bilateral de-targeting agreement which stated that ‘for the first time since the dawn of the nuclear age – Russia and United States will not operate nuclear forces, day-to-day, in a manner that presumes they are adversaries’.22 But if Russia is not presumed to be a potential adversary, three fundamental features of the current US nuclear force structure and operating posture make little sense. Firstly, the force is too big. Without the need to target Russia’s strategic forces there simply are not enough plausible aim-points in the world for US nuclear weapons that would require 1,500–2,000 operationally deployed warheads. For example, in an extreme crisis, perhaps 50–100 nuclear weapons at most would be needed to threaten devastation on Iran, North Korea or China. Only Russia’s large and dispersed nuclear force has historically justified US forces totalling thousands of nuclear weapons. Secondly, there would be no need for alerted weapons. No country other than Russia has the capability to pre-empt the launch of US forces by destroying a significant portion of them on the ground. Thirdly, US nuclear weapons would not need the operational capability (in terms of accuracy and destructive yield) to limit damage to the United States by destroying Russian nuclear weapons at their protected bases before they could be launched. The inability of the United States and Russia to make more rapid progress on reducing nuclear weapons and increasing transparency regarding the roles and missions of remaining weapons has created a source of continued misperception and mistrust. America’s maintenance of large alerted nuclear forces, even as it develops strategic missile defences, naturally leads Russia to question America’s strategic intentions. Russia’s retention of thousands of older non-strategic nuclear weapons raises similar suspicions among the NATO Allies. Given the generally positive nature of the US–Russian relationship, the continued competitive mutual nuclear entanglement hinders the development of truly normalised relations. For example, there is no compelling reason why US and Russian nuclear forces could not be safely decoupled, with each nation building down to their own strategic comfort level. The resulting asymmetries need not create instability as long as the political relationship remains positive. The problem is that much of the US strategic community continues to perceive Russia as a potential adversary, despite pronouncements to the contrary. This limits their willingness to reduce US nuclear counterforce or damaging-limitation capabilities vis-à-vis Russian strategic forces and causes them to advocate the maintenance of numerically large US forces capable of prompt attacks. Those who support the maintenance of large, accurate, prompt-use nuclear forces claim that they are necessary as a hedge against the possibility of a resurgent hostile Russia. However, recent studies by the Department of Defense conclude that, even if Russia did turn adversarial and increase its nuclear forces in excess of US totals, the survivable capabilities of US forces would continue to provide the ability to answer a Russian attack with a devastating response.23 The Pentagon’s new national security strategy document asserts that the United States can meet all its deterrent goals with respect to the full range of potential adversaries with a smaller nuclear arsenal than it now possesses.24 The continued reliance on large nuclear forces and Cold War-style nuclear deterrence has many costs. There is the cost in terms of hindering positive development of relations with Russia and China. The very risk of deterrence failure and the accompanying constant fear of annihilation impose an immeasurable psychological cost. If deterrence does fail, the resulting human suffering could be unparalleled. There is also a cost to efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to additional states and non-state actors. Embracing nuclear deterrence encourages proliferation. By concluding that the threat of nuclear use can help states manage a variety of threats to national security and stability, proponents of nuclear deterrence invite other states to seek nuclear weapons to secure similar purported benefits. Finally, there is the large financial cost of a nuclear deterrent. Maintaining its current arsenal of over 10,000 nuclear warheads costs the United States approximately$31 billion annually. By comparison, the combined US international diplomacy and foreign assistance budget is approximately \$39bn per year.25 Current plans call for the modernisation of US nuclear weapons manufacturing infrastructure and the construction of a new generation of nuclear missiles, bombers and submarines. This will cost hundreds of billions of dollars over the next 20 years. In a prolonged era of fiscal constraint, and with the benefits of nuclear weapons uncertain, this level of expenditure is unjustifiable. But perhaps the greatest cost of continued reliance by most nuclear-armed states on a strategy of nuclear deterrence is that it mischaracterises the sources of danger in today’s world and distracts decision-makers from adequately preparing for the most likely future threats.

Strategic oldthink

In the realist tradition of international relations theory, all nations are independent actors trying to maximise their power and security in an anarchical world.26 Nations initiate armed conflict as a means to advance or protect their interests because they calculate the benefits of using military force outweigh the risks of doing nothing in a competitive system. Proponents of nuclear deterrence argue that nuclear weapons changed the dynamics of this system by raising the stakes and uncertainties of using military force, making it less likely.27

There are many problems with this view. Firstly, states possessing nuclear weapons have continued to use military force in situations that could have led them into conflict with other nuclear-armed nations. Nuclear weapons did not deter NATO from using force in Kosovo in the late 1990s or Russian military action in Georgia in 2008. Moreover, states without nuclear weapons have even attacked those who possess them, an outcome that flies in the face of the claims of deterrence proponents. Nuclear weapons did not deter Egypt and Syria from attacking Israel in 1973, Argentina from attacking British territory in the 1982 Falklands War or Iraq from attacking Israel during the 1991 Gulf War.

Secondly, the theory of nuclear deterrence says little about how the roles of nuclear weapons might change in an ever-evolving international system. The nature of threats to individual nations and the stability of the international system have changed dramatically since the introduction of nuclear weapons. Examples of fundamental change include the end of the Cold War and the emergence of large-scale transnational terrorism. Another, more important change is the increased degree of international security interdependence.

This increased interdependence is clear in the field of economics, but it has also been highlighted by advances in our scientific understanding of the interaction between the Earth’s natural systems and the patterns of modern civilisation. Nothing demonstrates this more clearly than our understanding of environmental science. A nation concerned about the economic, public-health and security consequences of atmospheric pollution, climate change, sea-level rise and diminishing supplies of fresh water can implement laws and policies that drastically reduce its pollution of air and water within its own borders. But such a strategy is futile, because the air above its borders and the water in its rivers and aquifers is well mixed with pollutants from surrounding nations. Only if all nations cooperate to reduce pollution can any one of them substantially benefit from the effort. The same is true for global disease pandemics and natural disasters. These security threats affect many nations simultaneously and individual national efforts to counter or address them cannot be fully effective.

The interconnectedness of the issues of nuclear deterrence and transnational environmental threats has been demonstrated by two scientists, Alan Robock and Owen Brian Toon, who used computer modelling techniques to simulate the climatic consequences of a regional nuclear exchange between India and Pakistan. Their results show that even with the detonation of nuclear weapons limited to the territories of the two combatants, the smoke and dust raised into the atmosphere by the nuclear explosions would eventually circle the globe, killing crops and temporarily cooling the planet. Robock and Toon project that nearly a billion people would die, the vast majority civilians in nations outside the warring states.28 The implication of this analysis is that all countries have a direct security interest in preventing nuclear war, anywhere. It would be perfectly reasonable for the US joint chiefs of staff to advise the secretary of defense and White House that in order to protect the security of the US population, the Pentagon must have the ability to forcibly prevent nuclear war between India and Pakistan, or any other two countries. This means that no matter what the reason for the war, or who initiated hostilities, the security of the United States would demand that Indian and Pakistani nuclear weapons be destroyed in flight or preemptively attacked on the ground before they could be detonated and cause a global climatic catastrophe that would kill thousands of Americans.

The US military and much of the broader national-security community have recognised the seriousness of transnational threats such as global climate change. The US Department of Defense, for example, included climate threat as a key pillar of its most recent Quadrennial Defense Review and the CIA has established a Center for the Study of Climate Change. Despite this growing awareness, the response remains inadequate and the mechanisms for effective cooperation on transnational threats remain underdeveloped.29 If we fail to slow climate change or successfully adapt to its consequences, political and military crises are likely to result.30 Nuclear deterrence will be meaningless in these crises. Threats to use nuclear weapons will lack credibility because carrying them out would greatly worsen global environmental damage and its consequences for all states, including those who used nuclear weapons in an attempt to defend themselves or defeat their rivals.

A teachable moment

The destructive power of nuclear weapons can create an opportunity for a teachable moment unique in the history of human civilisation. The universal threat of nuclear war marks civilisation’s passage of a major milestone and reveals a fundamental truth of the modern international security environment. Technologically advanced nations have gained and will forever now possess multiple means to destroy one another. The number of nations with these capabilities will inevitably increase as technical knowledge and skill spread across the globe. Nuclear weapons may be only the first example of such a capability. New and more devastating means of human destruction may constantly appear as science and technology advance.

We must learn that the greatest meaning of the nuclear revolution is that every government facing a nuclear-armed rival has been forced to conclude that ‘my adversaries’ sense of security is now my concern’, and integrate that understanding into strategy, force planning and operations.31 Paradoxically, certain actions that might increase a state’s military capability against its rival are in fact contrary to its interests because they could panic that competitor into initiating nuclear war. This need to take the perceptions of an enemy into account and accommodate them for the sake of one’s own security is transformative.

The nuclear paradox can help us learn by providing clarity for a valuable new understanding: the nearly instantaneous global reach of nuclear weapons and their widespread proliferation crystallises unlike any other human construction the fact that seeking security from a purely nationalist perspective is ineffective and unscientific. The physical, biological and environmental sciences increasingly reinforce this and tell us that there is no such thing as national security, there is only international or collective security. The alternative is collective insecurity.

Nuclear weapons can only have a positive legacy if we learn from them. An international security system based the willingness of nations to commit mutual suicide to protect themselves has always been recognised as a sub-optimum solution to the security dilemma. It is fraught with great risk to the world’s nations and peoples and we should be ceaselessly striving for more rational and humane ways to achieve security. Nuclear disarmament has been pursued for more than 60 years and enshrined as a law-backed international goal not because it is the moralistic pipe-dream of the uninformed citizenry, but because many serious practitioners of international statecraft see it as an essential goal of a sustainable international order.32

It is not beyond the capabilities of government leaders and institutions to internalise the understanding that major war between modern states can no longer produce security benefits. It is not necessary to continue living with the risks of nuclear deterrence in order reap the cautionary benefits bestowed by the knowledge that modern nations can destroy one another. President Ronald Reagan likened nuclear deterrence based on mutually assured destruction to ‘two cowboys in a frontier saloon aiming their guns at each other´s heads permanently’. This is why he concluded that ‘nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought’.33

The nuclear taboo

Several scholars have argued that realist or traditional models of state behaviour cannot adequately explain the fact that nuclear weapons have not been used since 1945. They posit that a powerful norm or taboo against nuclear use has emerged. This taboo is based on the tradition of non-use, a growing understanding of the difficulty of achieving military aims with nuclear weapons and a deep moral revulsion to the indiscriminate destruction that nuclear weapons would bring upon human populations and the environment.34

That such a taboo exists and has strengthened over the years is indeed an affirmation that the idea of using nuclear weapons in the name of national defence is viewed by most people as morally illegitimate and incompatible with basic human values. It is also welcome evidence of the existence and strength of those values. Unfortunately, many observers regard the nuclear taboo as a reason to believe that the risk of nuclear war is overblown. They are confident that, despite the vulnerability to unforeseen events and human and mechanical error, nuclear weapons will not be used because controls are adequate, cooler heads will prevail and no leader will want to violate the mores and norms of the nuclear taboo.

Rather than being complacent with regard to existing reliance on nuclear weapons and the attendant risks to civilisation, an effort should be made to nurture and strengthen the taboo and extend it to cover all military conflict among or against nuclear-armed states. There is no compelling reason why governments can’t realise that launching major war between nuclear states carries such a high risk of leading to nuclear use that they must, in essence, treat it with equal opprobrium to nuclear use and adopt a taboo against major wars as well. Why do we need the day-to-day presence of the threat of nuclear destruction and the architecture that creates it to benefit from the taboo against initiating Armageddon?

If human civilisation is to survive it must demonstrate that violent conflict between major states is avoidable. This is not a new or radical concept. It is the foundational principle of the United Nations Charter that has been signed by 192 of the world’s 195 nations. Reagan said that peace was not the absence of conflict but the ability to resolve conflict by peaceful means.

Like chemical weapons, biological weapons, cluster munitions and anti-personnel landmines, nuclear weapons can be subjected to international regimes that seek to prevent particularly dangerous or inhumane technologies from being used for military purposes. The regimes banning these weapons, while not yet completely implemented, clearly demonstrate that it is possible to eliminate major classes of military technology and make their manufacture and use illegal. Giving up nuclear weapons is neither impossible nor more dangerous than the world we are living in and may indeed lead to a safer world. In essence, the idea of nuclear deterrence based on the threat of mutual destruction, or deterrence with any future indiscriminate weapon of mass destruction, must become universally taboo.

The view that nuclear weapons needed to be eliminated was articulated as soon as they came into being, and the view that the ideology of nuclear deterrence is incompatible with basic human values and the positive development of human civilisation is also as old as nuclear weapons themselves. Most nations and people view nuclear weapons as a problem, not a solution. At least 30 countries that could build such weapons have chosen not to. Many of the bomb’s inventors, including Robert Oppenheimer, were deeply troubled by its potential destructiveness and argued against making it a cornerstone of national security. The vast majority of nations, 189 out of 195, have pledged never to acquire nuclear weapons under the 1970 Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty.

Nuclear weapons should be eliminated because they will not make nations powerful in the twenty-first century and beyond. Their existence in the arsenals of the world creates the possibility of their use and the risks they create outweigh their value. The marginal contribution that nuclear deterrence now makes to the absence of major aggression between great powers is being purchased at too high a price. That price is the constant risk that a complex, tightly coupled and largely automated system subject to normal, systemic and human error will, as science tells us, inevitably fail, and fail catastrophically, with unprecedented and unjustified loss of civilian life. Mistakes with conventional weapons can have limited physical impact. Small mistakes are not possible with nuclear weapons.

Nuclear weapons are useless for confronting and resolving the most likely future international security challenges, but steady progress towards the elimination of such weapons can help nations confront these transnational problems. The diplomatic and technical skills acquired through the creation of treaties and institutions to effectively verify the elimination of nuclear weapons from national arsenals can provide powerful models and experience for addressing other transnational threats. The elimination of nuclear weapons, a project that will require 25–35 years, can thus be an organising principle and set an example for the forms of international cooperation, laws and institutions that are required to manage other global challenges. Secondly, elimination of nuclear weapons will allow creative, intellectual, technical and financial resources now devoted to nuclear threats to be focused toward the resolution of transnational crises faced by all nations. As nuclear weapons are drawn down those resources can be re-focused toward developing clean energy, carbon-capture technologies, clean water management and low-impact, high-productivity agriculture.

Nuclear weapons should be eliminated because there is a real historic opportunity to do so and because failing to do so will imperil current and future generations as they try to manage a host of inevitable global security problems. Transformation in the way states interact will be necessary before the last nuclear weapons are eliminated, but tangible progress toward nuclear disarmament cannot await the resolution of all international conflict. International conflict existed before nuclear weapons were invented, persists while states possess nuclear arsenals and will remain after nuclear weapons are eliminated from those arsenals.

Obama said in Prague that the elimination of nuclear weapons might not be achieved in his lifetime, but 2045 – 34 years from now, when Obama will be 84 – will mark the 100th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Japan. Three-and-a-half decades is time enough for the world to transition away from the ideology of nuclear deterrence and to dismantle the system of nuclear forces deployed in the name of national defence. Each passing year will bring the need to support Obama’s vision of a world free of nuclear weapons more sharply into focus. The international community has the opportunity to honour the memory of the victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by eliminating nuclear weapons from the arsenals of the world within a century after they were unleashed.
Acknowledgements

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not for-profit sectors. The views presented in this article are the author’s own and do not represent those of the Los Alamos National Laboratory or the US government.

Notes

1 See Remarks by President Barack Obama, Hradcany Square, Prague, Czech Republic, April 5, 2009, available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-By-President-Barack-Obama-In-Prague-As-Delivered. Two major international public efforts to eliminate nuclear weapons stand out: The Nuclear Security Project launched by Sam Nunn, George Schultz, William Perry and Henry Kissinger at http://www.nuclearsecurityproject.org/site/c.mjJXJbMMIoE/b.3483737/k.4057/Nuclear_Security_Project_Home.htm , and the Global Zero Project. For a summary of statements by national governments supporting the elimination of nuclear weapons see http://www.globalzero.org/en/who/governments.

2 See Lawrence S. Wittner, Confronting the Bomb, A Short History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009).

3 For classic treatments of nuclear deterrence theory see Thomas C. Schelling, Arms and Influence (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1966) and McGeorge Bundy, ‘To Cap the Volcano’, Foreign Affairs, vol. 48, no. 1, November 1969.

4 For classic information on the consequences of nuclear war see Sidney Drell and Frank von Hippel, ‘Limited Nuclear War’, Scientific American, November 1976; Samuel Glasstone and Philip J. Dolen (eds), Effects of Nuclear Weapons, 3rd ed. (Washington DC: US Department of Defense and Department of Energy, 1977; Effects of Multiple Nuclear Explosions Worldwide (Washington DC: National Acadey of Sciences, 1975); The Effects of Nuclear War (Washington DC: US Arms Control & Disarmament Agency, April 1979); William Daugherty, Barbara Levi and Frank von Hippel, ‘The Consequences of “Limited” Nuclear Attacks on the United States’, International Security, vol. 10, no. 4, Spring 1986, pp. 3–43.

5 Churchill’s last speech is entitled ‘Never Despair’. It was given to the House of Commons on 1 March 1955 and is available at http://www.winstonchurchill.org/learn/speeches/speeches-of-winston-churchill/102-never-despair.

6 While inadvertent or unintended use by the attacker is not a classic failure of deterrence, its possibility can be regarded as evidence of a vulnerability of deterrent systems. If decision-makers are so rationally averse to nuclear war they should only accept technical systems that have no potential for error or malicious tampering. Unfortunately, such systems do not exist. Furthermore, it will not much matter to the victim of a nuclear attack that it was an accident. The desire to retaliate will be overwhelming and under current doctrine retaliation may even be initiated before the accidentally launched weapons detonate.

7 See Geoffrey Forden, ‘False Alarms in the Nuclear Age’, NOVA documentary, 6 November 2001, available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/military/nuclear-false-alarms.html.

8 See Scott Sagan, The Limits of Safety: Organizations, Accidents, and Nuclear Weapons (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993), and Jaya Tiwari and Cleve J. Gray, ‘U.S. Nuclear Weapons Accidents’, http://www.cdi.org/issues/nukeaccidents/accidents.htm.

9 Martin Hellman, professor of engineering at Stanford University, is a leading advocate of this approach. See Martin E. Hellman, ‘Risk Analysis of Nuclear Deterrence’, The Bent of Tau Beta Pi, Spring 2008, available at http://nuclearrisk.org/paper.pdf . See also Martin E. Hellman, ‘Soaring, Cryptography and Nuclear Weapons’, 21 October 2008, available at http://nuclearrisk.org/soaring.pdf.

10 See the comments by Bruno Tertrais in ‘Nuclear Myth-Busting’, correspondence section of Nonproliferation Review, vol. 16, no. 2, July 2009.

11 See Ward Wilson, ‘The Myth of Nuclear Deterrence’, Nonproliferation Review, vol. 15, no. 3, November 2008; John Mueller, Atomic Obsession: Nuclear Alarmism from Hiroshima to Al-Qaeda (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010); and McGeorge Bundy, ‘The Unimpressive Record of Atomic Diplomacy’, in Robert J. Art and Robert Jervis (eds), International Politics: Enduring Concepts and Contemporary Issues (New York: HarperCollins, 1996), pp. 227–35.

12 See especially Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005); Sumio Hatano, ‘The Atomic Bomb and Soviet Entry into the War: Of Equal Importance’, in Tsuyoshi Hasagawa (ed.), The End of the Pacific War: Reappraisals (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2007).

13 See John Mueller, ‘The Essential Irrelevance of Nuclear Weapons: Stability in the Postwar World’, in The Cold War and After: Prospects for Peace (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), pp. 45–69.

14 See John S. Duffield, ‘Explaining the Long Peace in Europe: the Contributions of Regional Security Regimes’, Review of International Studies, vol. 20, no. 4, October 1994, pp. 369–88.

15 For the argument that Cold War peace is nothing unusual see Randolph M. Siverson and Michael Don Ward, ‘The Long Peace: A Reconsideration’, International Organization, vol. 56, no. 3, Summer 2002, pp. 679–91.

16 John A. Battilega, ‘Soviet Views Of Nuclear Warfare: The Post-Cold War Interviews’, in Henry Sokolski (ed.), Getting Mad: Nuclear Mutual Assured Destruction, Its Origins and Practice, November 2004, available at http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub585.pdf .

17 Vojtech Mastny, War Plans and Alliances in the Cold War: Threat Perceptions in the East and West (Abingdon: Routledge, 2006), pp. 3, 27.

18 Barbara Starr, ‘Air Force Investigates Mistaken Transport of Nuclear Warheads’, CNN, 5 September 2007, http://articles.cnn.com/2007-09-05/us/loose.nukes_1_nuclear-weapons-nuclear-warheads-missiles?_s=PM:US.

19 The nuclear deterrence literature is vast; for a sample of major sources highlighting nuclear deterrent benefits see Glenn H. Snyder, Deterrence and Defense: Toward a Theory of National Security (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1961); Alexander George and Richard Smoke, Deterrence in American Foreign Policy (New York: Columbia University Press, 1974); and Albert Wohlstetter, ‘The Delicate Balance of Terror’, Foreign Affairs, vol. 37, no. 2, January 1959, p. 213.

20 Bruce Allyn, James Blight and David Welch, ‘Essence of Revision: Moscow, Havana and the Cuban Missile Crisis’, International Security, vol. 14, no. 3, Winter 1989–1990, pp. 136–72.

21 The facts surrounding the crisis are taken from a chronology prepared for Laurence Chang and Peter Kornbluh (eds), The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 (New York: The New Press, 1992, 1998), and available at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/590101_620919%20Chronology%201.pdf.

22 ‘Presidents Detarget Nuclear Missiles’, ITAR-TASS, 14 January 1994.

23 Hans Kristensen, ‘DOD: Strategic Stability Not Threatened even by Greater Russian Nuclear Forces’, FAS Strategic Security Blog, 10 October 2012. http://www.fas.org/blog/ssp/2012/10/strategicstability.php (Nov. 2012).

24 See US Department of Defense, Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense, January 2012, http://www.defense.gov/news/Defense_Strategic_Guidance.pdf.

25 Stephen I. Schwartz and Deepti Choubey, ‘Nuclear Security Spending Assessing Costs, Examining Priorities’, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, January, 2009, http:// carnegieendowment.org/2009/01/12/nuclear-security-spending-assessing-costs-examining-priorities/8uq.

26 For a sampling of the vast literature on the realist tradition in international relations theory see John J. Mearsheimer, ‘Back to the Future: Instability in Europe after the Cold War’, International Security, vol. 15, no. 1, Summer 1990, pp. 5–49; Hans J. Morgenthau, Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, 2nd ed. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1954); Kenneth Waltz, Theory of International Politics (Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 1979); George F. Kennan, Realities of American Foreign Policy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1951); and Raymond Aron, Peace and War: A Theory of International Relations, trans. Richard Howard and Anette Baker Fox (Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1966).

27 See Frank Miller, ‘Disarmament and Deterrence: A Practitioner’s View’ in George Perkovich and James M. Acton, Abolishing Nuclear Weapons: A Debate (Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2009), http://carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=22748.

28 Alan Robock and Owen Brian Toon, ‘South Asian Threat? Local Nuclear War=Global Suffering’, Scientific American, January 2010, http://www.scientificamerican.com/author.cfm?id=2220.

29 See Francesco Femia, Christine Parthemore and Caitlin Werrell, ‘The Inadequate US Response to a Major Security Threat: Climate Change’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, web edition, 20 July 2011, http://www.thebulletin.org/web-edition/op-eds/the-inadequate-us-response-to-major-security-threat-climate-change.

30 See Jeffrey Mazo, Climate Conflict: How Global Warming Threatens Security and What to Do About It, Adelphi 409 (Abingdon: Routledge for the IISS, 2010).

31 See Robert Jervis, The Meaning of the Nuclear Revolution (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1989).

32 Notable among these is George P. Shultz, William J. Perry, Henry A. Kissinger and Sam Nunn, ‘A World Free of Nuclear Weapons’, Wall Street Journal, 4 January 2007.

33 Ronald Reagan, An American Life: The Autobiography (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990), pp. 257–8, 265, 267–8, 550.

34 See Nina Tannenwald, The Nuclear Taboo: The United States and the Non-Use of Nuclear Weapons Since 1945 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2007); Thomas Schelling, ‘The Nuclear Taboo’, MIT International Review , Spring 2007, http://web.mit.edu/mitir/2007/spring/taboo.pdf; T.V. Paul, The Traditions of Non-Use of Nuclear Weapons (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009); and William C. Potter, ‘In Search of the Nuclear Taboo: Past, Present, and Future’, Proliferation Papers, no. 31, Winter 2010, available at http://www.ifri.org.

James E. Doyle is a nuclear security and non-proliferation specialist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. He is the editor of Nuclear Safeguards, Security, and Nonproliferation: Achieving Security With Technology and Policy (Elsevier, 2008).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRqan8QtMD0
Magnetic plant growth accelerator 2014

Starting to see some significant results this year after changing the magnets for stronger ones.

https://imgur.com/AWjbdxa

This is why we need the Second Amendment.... Bravo to this woman

A man pulls a gun on a group of women and tries to steal something. One of the women pulls a gun out of her purse and pops him good...

http://www.newsweek.com/childrens-iq-could-be-lowered-drinking-tap-water-while-pregnant-667660

Children's IQ Could Be Lowered By Mothers Drinking Tap Water While Pregnant
By Dana Dovey

https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp655/

Prenatal Fluoride Exposure and Cognitive Outcomes in Children at 4 and 6–12 Years of Age in Mexico
Morteza Bashash, et al.

Conclusions: In this study, higher prenatal fluoride exposure, in the general range of exposures reported for other general population samples of pregnant women and nonpregnant adults, was associated with lower scores on tests of cognitive function in the offspring at age 4 and 6–12 y.

https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP655

UPDATED 7 MAY
Heaps mo' Snacks for Thought !

http://woked.co/women-dna-man-made-love/

Study: Women Store DNA From Every Man They’ve Ever Made Love With
by Daisy Magnum

Women "harvest" every male's DNA, according to a new study.

Women retain and carry living DNA from every man with whom they have sexual intercourse.

This bombshell discovery has been unearthed during a brand-new study by the University of Seattle and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

The scientific study actually discovered the shocking information by accident.

Scientists were initially attempting to identify whether ladies who were pregnant with a son are more susceptible to specific neurological illnesses that take place more regularly in males.

But as the scientists picked apart the female brain, the research study began to drift hugely off course.

Women harvest DNA

What they actually found, however, is that the female brain is far more complex than we previously believed.

The research study found that female brains typically harvest “male microchimerism.”...

According to the research, the study reports:
“63% of the females (37 of 59) tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain.
“Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions.”
“CONCLUSIONS: Male microchimerism was not irregular in females without sons.
“Besides known pregnancies, other possible sources of male microchimerism include unrecognized spontaneous abortion, disappeared male twin, an older sibling transferred by the maternal blood circulation, or SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.
“Male microchimerism was substantially more frequent and levels were greater in ladies with induced abortion than in women with other pregnancy histories.
“More research studies are needed to figure out specific origins of male microchimerism in women.”

Koen comments:

...The crucial points are false. What the study found was specifically that male microchimerism can occur in pregnancy and in some cases possibly also from direct blood contact.
The article as it is on your pages now claims that the study showed this could also happen by sexual intercourse and also in women who had never been pregnant. However, that is not at all what the real study says. In all cases there had been a pregnancy or actual blood transfer. The study does not even mention sexual intercourse, nor does it ever mention the "collection" of male dna from earlier  sexual partners. Not once.
I don't know who brewed that batch of nonsense but it's just crock.
No, in fact, the actual study only says that micro-chymerism of cells originating in  male embryo can and do occur in their mothers, and sometimes possibly in twins of which the male embryo is re-absorbed by the female embryo in the womb. Now this last way is in fact the common way for chymerism to take place in mammals.
And the former is also not surprising, after all we know that babys can absorb stem-cells from their mother through either umbillical blood or even through breast milk. So why would it be surprising that stem-cells from the embryo also flow back into the mother during pregnancy?
There were indeed a few women who had never given birth to a son in the study, but that doesn't mean there was never a male embryo to exchange cells with. Re-absorption of the embryo does happen in nature.

http://news.mit.edu/2018/physicists-discover-new-quantum-electronic-material-031

Physicists discover new quantum electronic material

With an atomic structure resembling a Japanese basketweaving pattern, “kagome metal” exhibits exotic, quantum behavior.

by Jennifer Chu

A motif of Japanese basketweaving known as the kagome pattern has preoccupied physicists for decades. Kagome baskets are typically made from strips of bamboo woven into a highly symmetrical pattern of interlaced, corner-sharing triangles.

If a metal or other conductive material could be made to resemble such a kagome pattern at the atomic scale, with individual atoms arranged in similar triangular patterns, it should in theory exhibit exotic electronic properties.

In a paper published today in Nature, physicists from MIT, Harvard University, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report that they have for the first time produced a kagome metal — an electrically conducting crystal, made from layers of iron and tin atoms, with each atomic layer arranged in the repeating pattern of a kagome lattice.

When they flowed a current across the kagome layers within the crystal, the researchers observed that the triangular arrangement of atoms induced strange, quantum-like behaviors in the passing current. Instead of flowing straight through the lattice, electrons instead veered, or bent back within the lattice.

This behavior is a three-dimensional cousin of the so-called Quantum Hall effect, in which electrons flowing through a two-dimensional material will exhibit a “chiral, topological state,” in which they bend into tight, circular paths and flow along edges without losing energy.

“By constructing the kagome network of iron, which is inherently magnetic, this exotic behavior persists to room temperature and higher,” says Joseph Checkelsky, assistant professor of physics at MIT. “The charges in the crystal feel not only the magnetic fields from these atoms, but also a purely quantum-mechanical magnetic force from the lattice. This could lead to perfect conduction, akin to superconductivity, in future generations of materials.”

To explore these findings, the team measured the energy spectrum within the crystal, using a modern version of an effect first discovered by Heinrich Hertz and explained by Einstein, known as the photoelectric effect.

“Fundamentally, the electrons are first ejected from the material’s surface and are then detected as a function of takeoff angle and kinetic energy,” says Riccardo Comin, an assistant professor of physics at MIT. “The resulting images are a very direct snapshot of the electronic levels occupied by electrons, and in this case they revealed the creation of nearly massless ‘Dirac’ particles, an electrically charged version of photons, the quanta of light.”

The spectra revealed that electrons flow through the crystal in a way that suggests the originally massless electrons gained a relativistic mass, similar to particles known as massive Dirac fermions. Theoretically, this is explained by the presence of the lattice’s constituent iron and tin atoms. The former are magnetic and give rise to a “handedness,” or chirality. The latter possess a heavier nuclear charge, producing a large local electric field. As an external current flows by, it senses the tin’s field not as an electric field but as a magnetic one, and bends away.

The research team was led by Checkelsky and Comin, as well as graduate students Linda Ye and Min Gu Kang in collaboration with Liang Fu, the Biedenharn Associate Professor of Physics, and postdoc Junwei Liu. The team also includes Christina Wicker ’17, research scientist Takehito Suzuki of MIT, Felix von Cube and David Bell of Harvard, and Chris Jozwiak, Aaron Bostwick, and Eli Rotenberg of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

“No alchemy required”

Physicists have theorized for decades that electronic materials could support exotic Quantum Hall behavior with their inherent magnetic character and lattice geometry. It wasn’t until several years ago that researchers made progress in realizing such materials.

“The community realized, why not make the system out of something magnetic, and then the system’s inherent magnetism could perhaps drive this behavior,” says Checkelsky, who at the time was working as a researcher at the University of Tokyo.

This eliminated the need for laboratory produced fields, typically 1 million times as strong as the Earth’s magnetic field, needed to observe this behavior.

“Several research groups were able to induce a Quantum Hall effect this way, but still at ultracold temperatures a few degrees above absolute zero — the result of shoehorning magnetism into a material where it did not naturally occur,” Checkelsky says.

At MIT, Checkelsky has instead looked for ways to drive this behavior with “instrinsic magnetism.” A key insight, motivated by the doctoral work of Evelyn Tang PhD ’15 and Professor Xiao-Gang Wen, was to seek this behavior in the kagome lattice. To do so, first author Ye ground together iron and tin, then heated the resulting powder in a furnace, producing crystals at about 750 degrees Celsius — the temperature at which iron and tin atoms prefer to arrange in a kagome-like pattern. She then submerged the crystals in an ice bath to enable the lattice patterns to remain stable at room temperature.

“The kagome pattern has big empty spaces that might be easy to weave by hand, but are often unstable in crystalline solids which prefer the best packing of atoms,” Ye says. “The trick here was to fill these voids with a second type of atom in a structure that was at least stable at high temperatures. Realizing these quantum materials doesn’t need alchemy, but instead materials science and patience.”

Bending and skipping toward zero-energy loss

Once the researchers grew several samples of crystals, each about a millimeter wide, they handed the samples off to collaborators at Harvard, who imaged the individual atomic layers within each crystal using transmission electron microscopy. The resulting images revealed that the arrangement of iron and tin atoms within each layer resembled the triangular patterns of the kagome lattice. Specifically, iron atoms were positioned at the corners of each triangle, while a single tin atom sat within the larger hexagonal space created between the interlacing triangles.

Ye then ran an electric current through the crystalline layers and monitored their flow via electrical voltages they produced. She found that the charges deflected in a manner that seemed two-dimensional, despite the three-dimensional nature of the crystals. The definitive proof came from the photoelectron experiments conducted by co-first author Kang who, in concert with the LBNL team, was able to show that the electronic spectra corresponded to effectively two-dimensional electrons.

“As we looked closely at the electronic bands, we noticed something unusual,” Kang adds. “The electrons in this magnetic material behaved as massive Dirac particles, something that had been predicted long ago but never been seen before in these systems.”

“The unique ability of this material to intertwine magnetism and topology suggests that they may well engender other emergent phenomena,” Comin says. “Our next goal is to detect and manipulate the edge states which are the very consequence of the topological nature of these newly discovered quantum electronic phases.”

Looking further, the team is now investigating ways to stabilize other more highly two-dimensional kagome lattice structures. Such materials, if they can be synthesized, could be used to explore not only devices with zero energy loss, such as dissipationless power lines, but also applications toward quantum computing.

“For new directions in quantum information science there is a growing interest in novel quantum circuits with pathways that are dissipationless and chiral,” Checkelsky says. “These kagome metals offer a new materials design pathway to realizing such new platforms for quantum circuitry.”

This research was supported in part by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the National Science Foundation.

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature25987
Nature volume 555, pages 638–642 (29 March 2018)
doi:10.1038/nature25987

Massive Dirac fermions in a ferromagnetic kagome metal

Linda Ye, et al.

Abstract

The kagome lattice is a two-dimensional network of corner-sharing triangles1 that is known to host exotic quantum magnetic states2,3,4. Theoretical work has predicted that kagome lattices may also host Dirac electronic states5 that could lead to topological6 and Chern7 insulating phases, but these states have so far not been detected in experiments. Here we study the d-electron kagome metal Fe3Sn2, which is designed to support bulk massive Dirac fermions in the presence of ferromagnetic order. We observe a temperature-independent intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity that persists above room temperature, which is suggestive of prominent Berry curvature from the time-reversal-symmetry-breaking electronic bands of the kagome plane. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we observe a pair of quasi-two-dimensional Dirac cones near the Fermi level with a mass gap of 30 millielectronvolts, which correspond to massive Dirac fermions that generate Berry-curvature-induced Hall conductivity. We show that this behaviour is a consequence of the underlying symmetry properties of the bilayer kagome lattice in the ferromagnetic state and the atomic spin–orbit coupling. This work provides evidence for a ferromagnetic kagome metal and an example of emergent topological electronic properties in a correlated electron system. Our results provide insight into the recent discoveries of exotic electronic behaviour in kagome-lattice antiferromagnets8,9,10 and may enable lattice-model realizations of fractional topological quantum states11,12.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JibLO4FIsrc

The Alchemist (Chanting Formula for the Transmutation) by Ezra Pound (Poetry Audiobook)

Sail of Claustra, Aelis, Azalais, As you move among the bright trees; As your voices, under the larches of Paradise Make a clear sound, Sail of Claustra, Aelis, Azalais, Raimona, Tibors, Berangere, 'Neath the dark gleam of the sky; Under night, the peacock-throated, Bring the saffron-coloured shell, Bring the red gold of the maple, Bring the light of the birch tree in autumn Mirals, Cembelins, Audiarda, Remember this fire. Elain, Tireis, Alcmena 'Mid the silver rustling of wheat, Agradiva, Anhes, Ardenca, From the plum-coloured lake, in stillness, From the molten dyes of the water Bring the burnished nature of fire; Briseis, Lianor, Loica, From the wide earth and the olive, From the poplars weeping their amber, By the bright flame of the fishing torch Remember this fire. Midonz, with the gold of the sun, the leaf of the poplar, by the light of the amber, Midonz, daughter of the sun, shaft of the tree, silver of the leaf, light of the yellow of the amber, Midonz, gift of the God, gift of the light, gift of the amber of the sun, Give light to the metal. Anhes of Rocacoart, Ardenca, Aemelis, From the power of grass, From the white, alive in the seed, From the heat of the bud, From the copper .of the leaf in autumn, From the bronze of the maple, from the sap in the bough; Lianor, loanna, Loica, By the stir of the fin, By the trout asleep in the gray-green of water; Vanna, Mandetta, Viera, Alodetta, Picarda, Manuela From the red gleam of copper, Ysaut, Ydone, slight rustling of leaves, Vierna, Jocelynn, daring of spirits, By the mirror of burnished copper, O Queen of Cypress, Out of Erebus, the flat-lying breadth, Breath that is stretched out beneath the world: Out of Erebus, out of the flat waste of air, lying beneath the world; Out of the brown leaf-brown colourless Bring the imperceptible cool. Elain, Tireis, Alcmena, Quiet this metal! Let the manes put off their terror, let them put off their aqueous bodies with fire. Let them assume the milk-white bodies of agate. Let them draw together the bones of the metal. Selvaggia, Guiscarda, Mandetta, Rain flakes of gold on the water Azure and flaking silver of water, Alcyon, Phaetona, Alcmena, Pallor of silver, pale lustre of Latona, By these, from the malevolence of the dew Guard this alembic. Elain, Tireis, Allodetta Quiet this metal.

https://jonrappoport.wordpress.com/2018/04/22/after-mass-shootings-theyre-not-just-coming-for-guns-theyre-coming-for-brains/

After mass shootings: they’re not just coming for guns, they’re coming for brains
by Jon Rappoport

...I’ll leave you with this quote from Andrew W. Saul, a nutritionist who has had much experience working in prisons. The Chicago Tribune published his op-ed piece on December 21, 2017.

“Fifteen years ago, the BBC reported that a double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that adding vitamins [and essential fatty acids] to the diets of inmates at a maximum-security institution cut offenses by 25 percent. The greatest reduction was for serious offenses, including violence, which fell by 40 percent. There was no such reduction for those on placebos. The study’s researchers claim that improving diets could be a cost-effective way of reducing crime in communities and also reducing the prison population. To quote lead study author Bernard Gesch, ‘The improvement was huge’.” [See (2002) British Journal of Psychiatry 181 22-8. The study reports a 35.1 percent “reduction of offences,” compared with baseline numbers, after prisoners took supplements for just two weeks.]

http://www.sci-news.com/medicine/biogenic-dental-product-05912.html

New Biogenic Dental Product Rebuilds Tooth Enamel, Treats Cavities

A team of scientists at the University of Washington has developed a new dental product that uses protein amelogenin-derived peptides to remineralize tooth enamel and treat cavities...

The study authors accomplished this by capturing the essence of amelogenin — a protein crucial to forming the hard crown enamel — to design amelogenin-derived peptides that biomineralize and are the key active ingredient in the new technology....

“These peptides are proven to bind onto tooth surfaces and recruit calcium and phosphate ions,” said study co-author Deniz Yucesoy, a doctoral student at the University of Washington.

The peptide-enabled technology allows the deposition of 10 to 50 micrometers of new enamel on the teeth after each use...

“Remineralization guided by peptides is a healthy alternative to current dental health care,” said study’s lead author Professor Mehmet Sarikaya, from the Department of Chemical Engineering and the Department of Oral Health Sciences at the University of Washington...

ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng, March 9, 2018;
doi: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.7b00959

Biomimetic Tooth Repair: Amelogenin-Derived Peptide Enables In Vitro Remineralization of Human Enamel.

Sami Dogan et al.

White spot lesions (WSL) and incipient caries on enamel surfaces are the earliest clinical outcomes for demineralization and caries. If left untreated, the caries can progress and may cause complex restorative procedures or even tooth extraction which destroys soft and hard tissue architecture as a consequence of connective tissue and bone loss. Current clinical practices are insufficient in treating dental caries. A long-standing practical challenge associated with demineralization related to dental diseases is incorporating a functional mineral microlayer which is fully integrated into the molecular structure of the tooth in repairing damaged enamel. This study demonstrates that small peptide domains derived from native protein amelogenin can be utilized to construct a mineral layer on damaged human enamel in vitro. Six groups were prepared to carry out remineralization on artificially created lesions on enamel: (1) no treatment, (2) Ca2+ and PO43– only, (3) 1100 ppm fluoride (F), (4) 20?000 ppm F, (5) 1100 ppm F and peptide, and (6) peptide alone. While the 1100 ppm F sample (indicative of common F content of toothpaste for homecare) did not deliver F to the thinly deposited mineral layer, high F test sample (indicative of clinical varnish treatment) formed mainly CaF2 nanoparticles on the surface. Fluoride, however, was deposited in the presence of the peptide, which also formed a thin mineral layer which was partially crystallized as fluorapatite. Among the test groups, only the peptide-alone sample resulted in remineralization of fairly thick (10 µm) dense mineralized layer containing HAp mineral, resembling the structure of the healthy enamel. The newly formed mineralized layer exhibited integration with the underlying enamel as evident by cross-sectional imaging. The peptide-guided remineralization approach sets the foundation for future development of biomimetic products and treatments for dental health care.

WO2017123986
REAGENTS AND METHODS FOR MINERALIZATION OF TOOTH ENAMEL

Inventor(s):  SARIKAYA et al.

BACKGROUND

Accumulation of various chromogcns/discolorants, for example, food and tobacco that come into contact daily onto tooth surfaces and their subsequent penetration into deeper regions (dentin), cause tooth discoloration. Furthermore, the process of aging, disease, trauma, certain medications, certain congenital conditions, and environmental effects can also cause teeth to become discolored. Although discolored teeth do not cause health problems, since bright white teem arc usually considered to be cosmetically desirable, there is a great deal of interest in developing compositions and methods for whitening teeth.

There arc several techniques for whitening or bleaching of teeth. Professional whitening methods, also known as "in-clinic" whitening strategics, arc considered presently as the most effective methods. These in-clinic whitening strategies typically involve the application of high-concentration peroxide products (up to 35%) and other abrasive chemicals to the discolored area. These peroxide species penetrate the stained area (up to underlying dentin layer) and dissolve the accumulated discoloring agents through an oxidation process. To achieve desired effects more quickly, such oxidation reactions on teeth arc often assisted with external laser light application, which heats up the reaction site and thereby increases the rate oxidation reaction. Furthermore, utilization of titanium dioxide up to 10% is often preferred to facilitate these photo- catalytic reactions. Other in-clinic whitening techniques involve superficially removing the enamel layer with abrasive instruments or pumice followed by treatment with additional caustic agents.

There arc several drawbacks of these in-clinic techniques. First of all, the abrasive chemicals and peroxide agents causes enamel demoralization and results with teeth sensitivity. In most cases sorc/injurcd gums as well as bad taste of the product itself cause much discomfort to the patients. Further, patients arc required to make a clinic appointment to get this medical service.

Other existing products for at-home use contain considerably lower

concentrations of active oxidizing agents and, thus, arc generally less effective than in- clinic whitening strategics and products. Therefore, dramatic whitening effect can only be achieved by the repeated applications of these reagents for several weeks. These treatments often assisted with bleaching trays (night-guard) in order to better localize bleaching products and, thereby, maximize the whitening effect However, even though these at home products contain active whitening agents in lower concentrations, similar side effects as those associated with professional treatments arc very common. In addition, there arc paint-on, at-home whitening products, also known as "tooth varnishes", as well as whitening strips intended to eliminate the need for dental trays. However, these products require more frequent applications, usually 3-timcs in a day, to complete whitening procedure. Finally, among the variety of at-home use products, whitening toothpastes and gels are the least effective form of whitening products due to their short contact time with the tooth surfaces. Although bleaching agent additives augment the effectiveness, the whitening effect is primarily as a result of removal of surface stains via mechanical action of brushing and other polishing ingredients (for example, silica particles).

Dental caries is one of the major public health problems and it is a highly prevalent disease among the global population. Incipient caries and white spot lesions (WSL) as well as hypersensitivity, arc the earliest clinical evidence of enamel dcmincralization and dental caries. Dental caries occurs when tooth enamel is exposed to acid produced by cariogenic bacteria. As a result, acid diffuses into surface enamel and dissolves hydroxyapatite (HAp) mineral. Due to its non-rcgenerative nature, enamel is unable to heal and repair itself post-dcmincralization. Traditionally, fluoride (F) has been used as the key agent in prevention of caries. Fluoride functions primarily via topical mechanisms. It is believed that fluoride forms a thin layer of new but harder mineral, namely fluorapatitc (FAp) which is incorporated into the existing HAp mineral on the tooth surface. There is a trend of enhancing the rcmincralization effect of fluoride with calcium and phosphate supplementation in high risk individuals. Although controversial, the use of fluoride products remains the primary treatment modality for caries prevention and rcmincralization, with major limitations regarding the efficacy of these products for the reversal or prevention of dental caries. Fluoride delivery systems, therefore, arc not sufficient to overcome the high caries risk especially in younger and elderly population.

There is presently an unmet need for tooth whitening and mineralization methods and products that reduce or eliminate the need for concentrated, abrasive oxidizing agents and attendant side effects such as dcmincralization-associatcd tooth sensitivity and gum line injuries.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Herein we provide methods and compositions for whitening teeth where the natural color of teeth is restored and improved upon by generating newly formed thin mineral layer on discolored tooth surface using one or more biomineralizing

polypeptides. Herein we also provide methods and compositions for mineralizing teeth.

In a first aspect, the present application provides a method for whitening teeth, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an amount effective to whiten the teeth of a biomineralizing polypeptide. In some embodiments, the method for whitening teeth comprises administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a composition comprising a biomineralizing polypeptide. In some embodiments, the biomineralizing polypeptide comprises an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of...

Conclusion & Significance: We developed a peptide-based aqueous mineralization methodology to treat dental hypersensitivity by forming a continuous mineral layer on the exposed dentin of human teeth in vitro. This biomimctic treatment provides a unique solution to dentinal hypersensitivity which can be used as a platform technology for in- clinic and over-the-counter hypersensitivity treatments.

https://www.globalresearch.ca/the-moment-of-truth-has-come-what-now-threat-to-life-on-planet-earth-ozone-dying-and-the-deadly-ultraviolet-cosmic-radiation/5637864

The Moment of Truth Has Come! What Now? Threat to Life on Planet Earth: Ozone Dying and the Deadly Ultraviolet Cosmic Radiation

By Prof. Claudia von Werlhof

1 Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Vol. 14, Issue 2
J. Marvin Herndon, Raymond D. Hoisington and Mark Whiteside:
Deadly Ultraviolet UV-C and UV-B Penetration to Earth´s Surface: Human and Environmental Health Implications
http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/23870
http://www.journalrepository.org/media/journals/JGEESI_42/2018/Mar/Herndon1422018JGEESI40245.pdf
http://www.nuclearplanet.com/uv.html
http://www.nuclearplanet.com/uvc2.pdf

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, ISSN: 2454-7352,Vol.: 14, Issue.: 2

Deadly Ultraviolet UV-C and UV-B Penetration to Earth’s Surface: Human and Environmental Health Implications

J. Marvin Herndon, et al.
Abstracts

Aims: The dangerous portion of ultraviolet radiation is widely believed to be completely absorbed by the atmosphere before reaching Earth’s surface. Our objective is to make multiple measurements at Earth’s surface of the solar irradiance spectrum in the range 200-400 nm.

Methods: We made numerous measurements of the solar irradiance target="_blank" spectrum in the range 200-400 nm at an elevation of 56 m with International Light Technologies ILT950UV Spectral Radiometer mounted on a Meade LXD55 auto guider telescope tripod and mount assembly.

Results: Our multifold measurements of solar irradiance spectra demonstrate conclusively that all wavelengths in the spectral range 200-400 nm reach Earth’s surface, contrary to the widespread perception that all UV-C and the majority of UV-B never reach the surface. We confirm the surface UV-C measurements of D’Antoni et al. (2007) that were disputed, based on faulty computer model calculations of atmospheric ozone, and thereafter ignored by the geoscience community.

Conclusions: The veracity of our data and D’Antoni et al. (2007)’s data call into question the validity of atmospheric ozone models. Further, we call into question the simplistic supposition of the Montreal Protocol that chloro-fluoro-hydrocarbons are the primary cause of ozone depletion, and point to the very heavy burden of halogens introduced into the atmosphere by ongoing jet-sprayed coal-fly-ash geoengineering. We demonstrate that satellite-based LISIRD solar spectra irradiance at the top of the atmosphere is badly flawed with some regions of the spectrum being less intense than measured at Earth’s surface. That calls into question any calculations made utilizing LISIRD data. We provide introductory information on the devastating effects of UV-B and UV-C on humans, phytoplankton, coral, insects and plants. These will be discussed in greater detail in subsequent articles.

http://www.nuclearplanet.com/
Science About the True Nature of Earth and Universe

Ongoing Coal-Fly-Ash Toxic Chemical Geoengineeringing

Particle Trails Over London -- Since at least 1958 the military has engaged in spraying particles into the air presumably to study weather modification. These activities were sporadic in time and location. But about 2010, during the Obama Administration, the aerial spraying of particulates became a near-daily activity across North America, the European Union, the British Commonwealth, and other countries including China, Egypt, India, Russia and perhaps others. This was a covert activity with denial and disinformation seemingly coordinated at all levels of government. No information was made available on the particle compositions sprayed into the air we all breathe, and no information on potentially adverse health risks. Following are statements/questions with links to answers...

J. Marvin Herndon, PhD and Mark Whiteside, MD, MPH to date are the only scientists to publish in the peer-reviewed scientific literature on the compositions and public health risks of the aerial spraying....

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SpMxhsNYJ0g&list=PL60A4CF1FFC8A66A7

Turning Clay into Gold - The Secrets of Alchemy and Lustre

In the 8th century, potters working in what is now Iraq developed a mysterious process called "Lustre".

This gave an extraordinary metallic sheen which rivals even precious metals in its effect.

All but turning objects of Clay into Gold...

England Phuques Iself Brainless with a Daacha Government... God Shave The Dotard Queen !!!

https://www.activistpost.com/2018/04/man-sentenced-to-8-months-in-prison-after-flipping-off-a-red-light-camera.html

Man Sentenced to 8 Months in Prison After Flipping Off a Red Light Camera

...The residents of North Yorkshire can now rest easy knowing that police are locking up elderly men for raising their middle finger, throwing people in jail for YouTube videos, and sanctioning the death of babies — while a human trafficking and child rape epidemic sweeps the nation going almost entirely uninvestigated by police.

http://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2018/04/gruesome-details-uk-hospital-starved-baby-alfie-for-4-days-until-he-died-pure-evil/

Gruesome Details: UK Hospital Starved Baby Alfie for 4 Days Until He Died … Pure Evil

https://thefreethoughtproject.com/police-recruits-quit-program-call-out-dept-training-become-warriors-against-the-public/

Police Cadets Quit, Expose Dept. for Training Cops to View Public as ‘Cockroaches’ They’re at War With

Nearly a dozen police recruits quit their training program and are now calling out the department for trying to teach them aggressive tactics that do not serve or protect the public.
By
Jack Burns -

It takes at least four years of college for an enlisted person in the military to become a military “officer,” which is quite a contrast from the mere nine months it takes for a police officer to earn the title. But according to a group of 10 former Austin Police Department recruits who wanted to become peace officers, just like the military, the Austin PD is training  “warriors” instead of “guardians.”

The former recruits are now blowing the whistle and claiming that the type of mentality they encountered is not what they signed up for and is not representative of the greater Austin community. KVUE writes:

Summer Spisak, a 38-year-old former tech employee who participated in nine weeks of the eight-month academy last year, said instructors told her and other cadets they would “punch them in the face” if they said they wanted to be police officers to help people.

Spisak and others are now sounding the alarm for the public, saying police are being trained to view community members as the enemy and not as their fellow citizens. “It’s so different from what is portrayed…It’s so different from my expectation of the Austin Police Department,” Spisak concluded...

Jonathan Murray, who now works in sales for Dell, said instructors repeatedly degraded the homeless and prostitutes, referring to them as “cockroaches” and suggesting they “find a transient” if they were bored and wanted a felony arrest....

http://woked.co/avocado-seeds-cure-cancer/?utm_source=Woked&utm_campaign=9f4d3d5147-RSS_EMAIL_CAMPAIGN&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_9af1002757-9f4d3d5147-10140021

Avocado Seeds Cure Cancer Conclusive Study Reveals

Here is why you should never throw away your avocado seeds...
1. Kills Cancer Cells
2. Enhances The Immune System
3. Heals Digestive Issues
4. Secures Heart Health ..

WO2017079676
NANOBIONIC LIGHT EMITTING PLANTS

Inventor(s):     STRANO MICHAEL S [US]; KWAK SEONGYEON [US]; GOMEZ JUAN PABLO GIRALDO [GB]; WONG MIN HAO [US] +
Applicant(s):     MASSACHUSETTS INST TECHNOLOGY [US] +

A plant nanobionic approach can utilize a system of four nanoparticle types, including luciferase conjugated silica, luciferin releasing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), coenzyme A functionalized chitosan, and semiconductor nanocrystal phosphors for wavelength modulation.

https://www.naturalnews.com/2018-03-21-mit-researchers-create-device-generate-electricity-from-air.html

MIT researchers create device they claim can “generate electricity from air”
By Natural News

...According to Michael Strano, the lead engineer who worked on the project, they came up with the concept and completed its execution all on their own. “We basically invented this concept out of whole cloth. We’ve built the first thermal resonator,” he explained. “It’s something that can sit on a desk and generate energy out of what seems like nothing.”...

US8941285
NANOSCALE THERMOELECTRIC WAVE GENERATORS
Inventor: STRANO MICHAEL / CHOI WON

https://www.veteranstoday.com/2018/05/05/jill-stein-gives-netanyahu-the-finger/

Jill Stein gives Netanyahu the finger

So we should give Jill Stein two thumbs up for slapping Netanyahu.
By
Jonas E. Alexis

Former presidential candidate Jill Stein has recently bitch-slapped Benjamin Netanyahu—for good reasons. Netanyahu, as we all know, is mad and sad because many countries aren’t following his perpetual lies with respect to the Iran deal.
...Jill Stein has politically grabbed Netanyahu by the hair of his head and told him what he didn’t want to hear. She has recently twitted:

Let’s get this straight:
Israel accused Iran of having a secret nuclear weapons program. ❌
Israel has a secret nuclear weapons program. ✅
Iran complies with all treaties and inspections. ✅
Israel complies with none. ❌

https://www.henrymakow.com/2018/05/Karl-Marx-Was-Rothschilds-Third-Cousin%20.html

Karl Marx Was Rothschilds' Third Cousin

...The idea of Marx as a Rothschild shill...was raised as a concern by his contemporary rival in the First International, Mikhail Bakunin in 1869,[18][19] who was not even aware of the fact that Marx and Rothschild were cousins. Bakunin wrote presciently:

"This world is now, at least for the most part, at the disposal of Marx on the one hand, and of Rothschild on the other. This may seem strange. What can there be in common between socialism and a leading bank? The point is that authoritarian socialism, Marxist communism, demands a strong centralisation of the state. And where there is centralization of the state, there must necessarily be a central bank, and where such a bank exists, the parasitic Jewish nation, speculating with the Labour of the people, will be found.    "--Mikhail Bakunin, Profession de foi d'un démocrate socialiste russe précédé d'une étude sur les juifs allemands, 1869.[18]http://en.metapedia.org/wiki/Karl_Mar

UPDATED 3 MAY

http://news.mit.edu/2018/physicists-discover-new-quantum-electronic-material-0319

Physicists discover new quantum electronic material

With an atomic structure resembling a Japanese basketweaving pattern, “kagome metal” exhibits exotic, quantum behavior.

Jennifer Chu | MIT News Office, March 19, 2018

A motif of Japanese basketweaving known as the kagome pattern has preoccupied physicists for decades. Kagome baskets are typically made from strips of bamboo woven into a highly symmetrical pattern of interlaced, corner-sharing triangles.

If a metal or other conductive material could be made to resemble such a kagome pattern at the atomic scale, with individual atoms arranged in similar triangular patterns, it should in theory exhibit exotic electronic properties.

In a paper published today in Nature, physicists from MIT, Harvard University, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report that they have for the first time produced a kagome metal — an electrically conducting crystal, made from layers of iron and tin atoms, with each atomic layer arranged in the repeating pattern of a kagome lattice.

When they flowed a current across the kagome layers within the crystal, the researchers observed that the triangular arrangement of atoms induced strange, quantum-like behaviors in the passing current. Instead of flowing straight through the lattice, electrons instead veered, or bent back within the lattice.

This behavior is a three-dimensional cousin of the so-called Quantum Hall effect, in which electrons flowing through a two-dimensional material will exhibit a “chiral, topological state,” in which they bend into tight, circular paths and flow along edges without losing energy.

“By constructing the kagome network of iron, which is inherently magnetic, this exotic behavior persists to room temperature and higher,” says Joseph Checkelsky, assistant professor of physics at MIT. “The charges in the crystal feel not only the magnetic fields from these atoms, but also a purely quantum-mechanical magnetic force from the lattice. This could lead to perfect conduction, akin to superconductivity, in future generations of materials.”

To explore these findings, the team measured the energy spectrum within the crystal, using a modern version of an effect first discovered by Heinrich Hertz and explained by Einstein, known as the photoelectric effect.

“Fundamentally, the electrons are first ejected from the material’s surface and are then detected as a function of takeoff angle and kinetic energy,” says Riccardo Comin, an assistant professor of physics at MIT. “The resulting images are a very direct snapshot of the electronic levels occupied by electrons, and in this case they revealed the creation of nearly massless ‘Dirac’ particles, an electrically charged version of photons, the quanta of light.”

The spectra revealed that electrons flow through the crystal in a way that suggests the originally massless electrons gained a relativistic mass, similar to particles known as massive Dirac fermions. Theoretically, this is explained by the presence of the lattice’s constituent iron and tin atoms. The former are magnetic and give rise to a “handedness,” or chirality. The latter possess a heavier nuclear charge, producing a large local electric field. As an external current flows by, it senses the tin’s field not as an electric field but as a magnetic one, and bends away.

The research team was led by Checkelsky and Comin, as well as graduate students Linda Ye and Min Gu Kang in collaboration with Liang Fu, the Biedenharn Associate Professor of Physics, and postdoc Junwei Liu. The team also includes Christina Wicker ’17, research scientist Takehito Suzuki of MIT, Felix von Cube and David Bell of Harvard, and Chris Jozwiak, Aaron Bostwick, and Eli Rotenberg of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

“No alchemy required”

Physicists have theorized for decades that electronic materials could support exotic Quantum Hall behavior with their inherent magnetic character and lattice geometry. It wasn’t until several years ago that researchers made progress in realizing such materials.

“The community realized, why not make the system out of something magnetic, and then the system’s inherent magnetism could perhaps drive this behavior,” says Checkelsky, who at the time was working as a researcher at the University of Tokyo.

This eliminated the need for laboratory produced fields, typically 1 million times as strong as the Earth’s magnetic field, needed to observe this behavior.

“Several research groups were able to induce a Quantum Hall effect this way, but still at ultracold temperatures a few degrees above absolute zero — the result of shoehorning magnetism into a material where it did not naturally occur,” Checkelsky says.

At MIT, Checkelsky has instead looked for ways to drive this behavior with “instrinsic magnetism.” A key insight, motivated by the doctoral work of Evelyn Tang PhD ’15 and Professor Xiao-Gang Wen, was to seek this behavior in the kagome lattice. To do so, first author Ye ground together iron and tin, then heated the resulting powder in a furnace, producing crystals at about 750 degrees Celsius — the temperature at which iron and tin atoms prefer to arrange in a kagome-like pattern. She then submerged the crystals in an ice bath to enable the lattice patterns to remain stable at room temperature.

“The kagome pattern has big empty spaces that might be easy to weave by hand, but are often unstable in crystalline solids which prefer the best packing of atoms,” Ye says. “The trick here was to fill these voids with a second type of atom in a structure that was at least stable at high temperatures. Realizing these quantum materials doesn’t need alchemy, but instead materials science and patience.”

Bending and skipping toward zero-energy loss

Once the researchers grew several samples of crystals, each about a millimeter wide, they handed the samples off to collaborators at Harvard, who imaged the individual atomic layers within each crystal using transmission electron microscopy. The resulting images revealed that the arrangement of iron and tin atoms within each layer resembled the triangular patterns of the kagome lattice. Specifically, iron atoms were positioned at the corners of each triangle, while a single tin atom sat within the larger hexagonal space created between the interlacing triangles.

Ye then ran an electric current through the crystalline layers and monitored their flow via electrical voltages they produced. She found that the charges deflected in a manner that seemed two-dimensional, despite the three-dimensional nature of the crystals. The definitive proof came from the photoelectron experiments conducted by co-first author Kang who, in concert with the LBNL team, was able to show that the electronic spectra corresponded to effectively two-dimensional electrons.

“As we looked closely at the electronic bands, we noticed something unusual,” Kang adds. “The electrons in this magnetic material behaved as massive Dirac particles, something that had been predicted long ago but never been seen before in these systems.”

“The unique ability of this material to intertwine magnetism and topology suggests that they may well engender other emergent phenomena,” Comin says. “Our next goal is to detect and manipulate the edge states which are the very consequence of the topological nature of these newly discovered quantum electronic phases.”

Looking further, the team is now investigating ways to stabilize other more highly two-dimensional kagome lattice structures. Such materials, if they can be synthesized, could be used to explore not only devices with zero energy loss, such as dissipationless power lines, but also applications toward quantum computing.

“For new directions in quantum information science there is a growing interest in novel quantum circuits with pathways that are dissipationless and chiral,” Checkelsky says. “These kagome metals offer a new materials design pathway to realizing such new platforms for quantum circuitry.”

This research was supported in part by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the National Science Foundation.

https://www.nature.com/articles/nature25987
Nature volume 555, pages 638–642 (29 March 2018)
doi:10.1038/nature25987
Massive Dirac fermions in a ferromagnetic kagome metal

Linda Ye, Mingu Kang, Junwei Liu, Felix von Cube, Christina R. Wicker, Takehito Suzuki, Chris Jozwiak, Aaron Bostwick, Eli Rotenberg, David C. Bell, Liang Fu, Riccardo Comin & Joseph G. Checkelsky

Abstract

The kagome lattice is a two-dimensional network of corner-sharing triangles1 that is known to host exotic quantum magnetic states2,3,4. Theoretical work has predicted that kagome lattices may also host Dirac electronic states5 that could lead to topological6 and Chern7 insulating phases, but these states have so far not been detected in experiments. Here we study the d-electron kagome metal Fe3Sn2, which is designed to support bulk massive Dirac fermions in the presence of ferromagnetic order. We observe a temperature-independent intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity that persists above room temperature, which is suggestive of prominent Berry curvature from the time-reversal-symmetry-breaking electronic bands of the kagome plane. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we observe a pair of quasi-two-dimensional Dirac cones near the Fermi level with a mass gap of 30 millielectronvolts, which correspond to massive Dirac fermions that generate Berry-curvature-induced Hall conductivity. We show that this behaviour is a consequence of the underlying symmetry properties of the bilayer kagome lattice in the ferromagnetic state and the atomic spin–orbit coupling. This work provides evidence for a ferromagnetic kagome metal and an example of emergent topological electronic properties in a correlated electron system. Our results provide insight into the recent discoveries of exotic electronic behaviour in kagome-lattice antiferromagnets8,9,10 and may enable lattice-model realizations of fractional topological quantum states11,12.

https://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.80.113102
Phys. Rev. B 80, 113102, 25 September 2009
Topological insulator on the kagome lattice\
H.M. Guo and M. Franz

Abstract

Itinerant electrons in a two-dimensional kagome lattice form a Dirac semimetal, similar to graphene. When lattice and spin symmetries are broken by various periodic perturbations this semimetal is shown to spawn interesting nonmagnetic insulating phases. These include a two-dimensional topological insulator with a nontrivial Z2 invariant and robust gapless edge states, as well as dimerized and trimerized “Kekulé” insulators. The latter two are topologically trivial but the Kekulé phase possesses a complex order parameter with fractionally charged vortex excitations. A charge-density wave is shown to couple to the Dirac fermions as an effective axial gauge field.

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0953-8984/23/11/112205/meta
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Volume 23, Number 11,Published 1 March 2011

The giant anomalous Hall effect in the ferromagnet Fe3Sn2—a frustrated kagome metal
T Kida, et al.
Abstract

The kagome-bilayer material Fe3Sn2 has recently been shown to be an example of a rare class of magnet—a frustrated ferromagnetic metal. While the magnetism of Fe3Sn2 appears to be relatively simple at high temperature, with localized moments parallel to the c-axis (TC = 640 K), upon cooling the competing exchange interactions and spin frustration become apparent as they cause the moments to become non-collinear and to rotate towards the kagome plane, forming firstly a canted ferromagnetic structure and then a re-entrant spin glass (T_{\mathrm {f}}\simeq 80  K).

In this work we show that Fe3Sn2 possesses an unusual anomalous Hall effect. The saturated Hall resistivity of Fe3Sn2 is 3.2 µΩ cm at 300 K, almost 20 times higher than that of typical itinerant ferromagnets such as Fe and Ni. The anomalous Hall coefficient Rs is 6.7 × 10 − 9 Ω cm G − 1 at 300 K, which is three orders of magnitude larger than that of pure Fe, and obeys an unconventional scaling with the longitudinal resistivity, ρxx, of R_{{\mathrm {s}}} \propto \rho_{xx}^{3.15} . Such a relationship cannot be explained by either the conventional skew or side-jump mechanisms, indicating that the anomalous Hall effect in Fe3Sn2 has an extraordinary origin that is presumed to be related to the underlying frustration of the magnetism. These findings demonstrate that frustrated ferromagnets, whether based on bulk materials or on artificial nanoscale structures, can provide new routes to room temperature spin-dependent electron transport properties suited to application in spintronics.

https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.186802
Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 186802 – Published 27 October 2015

Intrinsic Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in the Kagome Lattice Cs2LiMn3F12
Gang Xu, Biao Lian, and Shou-Cheng Zhang

Abstract

In a kagome lattice, the time reversal symmetry can be broken by a staggered magnetic flux emerging from ferromagnetic ordering and intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, leading to several well-separated nontrivial Chern bands and intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect. Based on this idea and ab initio calculations, we propose the realization of the intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect in the single layer Cs2Mn3F12 kagome lattice and on the (001) surface of a Cs2LiMn3F12 single crystal by modifying the carrier coverage on it, where the band gap is around 20 meV. Moreover, a simplified tight binding model based on the in-plane ddσ antibonding states is constructed to understand the topological band structures of the system.

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/340/6129/167
Science  12 Apr 2013: Vol. 340, Issue 6129, pp. 167-170
DOI: 10.1126/science.1234414

Experimental Observation of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in a Magnetic Topological Insulator
Cui-Zu Chang, et al

Quantized and Anomalous

The Hall effect, an electromagnetic phenomenon with a straightforward explanation, has many exotic counterparts, including a quantized version occurring independently of the presence of external magnetic fields. Inspired by a theoretical prediction of the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in magnetically doped topological insulator thin films, Chang et al. (p. 167, published online 14 March; see the Perspective by Oh) prepared thin films of the compound Cr0.15(Bi0.1Sb0.9)1.85Te3, with Cr as the magnetic dopant. They observed a plateau in the Hall resistance as a function of the gating voltage without any applied magnetic fields, signifying the achievement of the QAH state.

Abstract

The quantized version of the anomalous Hall effect has been predicted to occur in magnetic topological insulators, but the experimental realization has been challenging. Here, we report the observation of the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in thin films of chromium-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3, a magnetic topological insulator. At zero magnetic field, the gate-tuned anomalous Hall resistance reaches the predicted quantized value of h/e2, accompanied by a considerable drop in the longitudinal resistance. Under a strong magnetic field, the longitudinal resistance vanishes, whereas the Hall resistance remains at the quantized value. The realization of the QAH effect may lead to the development of low-power-consumption electronics.

Related: Palmer CRAIG: Hall Effect Battery

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JibLO4FIsrc

The Alchemist (Chanting Formula for the Transmutation) by Ezra Pound (Poetry Audiobook)

Sail of Claustra, Aelis, Azalais, As you move among the bright trees; As your voices, under the larches of Paradise Make a clear sound, Sail of Claustra, Aelis, Azalais, Raimona, Tibors, Berangere, 'Neath the dark gleam of the sky; Under night, the peacock-throated, Bring the saffron-coloured shell, Bring the red gold of the maple, Bring the light of the birch tree in autumn Mirals, Cembelins, Audiarda, Remember this fire. Elain, Tireis, Alcmena 'Mid the silver rustling of wheat, Agradiva, Anhes, Ardenca, From the plum-coloured lake, in stillness, From the molten dyes of the water Bring the burnished nature of fire; Briseis, Lianor, Loica, From the wide earth and the olive, From the poplars weeping their amber, By the bright flame of the fishing torch Remember this fire. Midonz, with the gold of the sun, the leaf of the poplar, by the light of the amber, Midonz, daughter of the sun, shaft of the tree, silver of the leaf, light of the yellow of the amber, Midonz, gift of the God, gift of the light, gift of the amber of the sun, Give light to the metal. Anhes of Rocacoart, Ardenca, Aemelis, From the power of grass, From the white, alive in the seed, From the heat of the bud, From the copper .of the leaf in autumn, From the bronze of the maple, from the sap in the bough; Lianor, loanna, Loica, By the stir of the fin, By the trout asleep in the gray-green of water; Vanna, Mandetta, Viera, Alodetta, Picarda, Manuela From the red gleam of copper, Ysaut, Ydone, slight rustling of leaves, Vierna, Jocelynn, daring of spirits, By the mirror of burnished copper, O Queen of Cypress, Out of Erebus, the flat-lying breadth, Breath that is stretched out beneath the world: Out of Erebus, out of the flat waste of air, lying beneath the world; Out of the brown leaf-brown colourless Bring the imperceptible cool. Elain, Tireis, Alcmena, Quiet this metal! Let the manes put off their terror, let them put off their aqueous bodies with fire. Let them assume the milk-white bodies of agate. Let them draw together the bones of the metal. Selvaggia, Guiscarda, Mandetta, Rain flakes of gold on the water Azure and flaking silver of water, Alcyon, Phaetona, Alcmena, Pallor of silver, pale lustre of Latona, By these, from the malevolence of the dew Guard this alembic. Elain, Tireis, Allodetta Quiet this metal.

https://jonrappoport.wordpress.com/2018/04/22/after-mass-shootings-theyre-not-just-coming-for-guns-theyre-coming-for-brains/

After mass shootings: they’re not just coming for guns, they’re coming for brains
by Jon Rappoport

...I’ll leave you with this quote from Andrew W. Saul, a nutritionist who has had much experience working in prisons. The Chicago Tribune published his op-ed piece on December 21, 2017.

“Fifteen years ago, the BBC reported that a double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that adding vitamins [and essential fatty acids] to the diets of inmates at a maximum-security institution cut offenses by 25 percent. The greatest reduction was for serious offenses, including violence, which fell by 40 percent. There was no such reduction for those on placebos. The study’s researchers claim that improving diets could be a cost-effective way of reducing crime in communities and also reducing the prison population. To quote lead study author Bernard Gesch, ‘The improvement was huge’.” [See (2002) British Journal of Psychiatry 181 22-8. The study reports a 35.1 percent “reduction of offences,” compared with baseline numbers, after prisoners took supplements for just two weeks.]

http://www.sci-news.com/medicine/biogenic-dental-product-05912.html

New Biogenic Dental Product Rebuilds Tooth Enamel, Treats Cavities

A team of scientists at the University of Washington has developed a new dental product that uses protein amelogenin-derived peptides to remineralize tooth enamel and treat cavities...

The study authors accomplished this by capturing the essence of amelogenin — a protein crucial to forming the hard crown enamel — to design amelogenin-derived peptides that biomineralize and are the key active ingredient in the new technology....

“These peptides are proven to bind onto tooth surfaces and recruit calcium and phosphate ions,” said study co-author Deniz Yucesoy, a doctoral student at the University of Washington.

The peptide-enabled technology allows the deposition of 10 to 50 micrometers of new enamel on the teeth after each use...

“Remineralization guided by peptides is a healthy alternative to current dental health care,” said study’s lead author Professor Mehmet Sarikaya, from the Department of Chemical Engineering and the Department of Oral Health Sciences at the University of Washington...

ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng, March 9, 2018;
doi: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.7b00959

Biomimetic Tooth Repair: Amelogenin-Derived Peptide Enables In Vitro Remineralization of Human Enamel.

Sami Dogan et al.

White spot lesions (WSL) and incipient caries on enamel surfaces are the earliest clinical outcomes for demineralization and caries. If left untreated, the caries can progress and may cause complex restorative procedures or even tooth extraction which destroys soft and hard tissue architecture as a consequence of connective tissue and bone loss. Current clinical practices are insufficient in treating dental caries. A long-standing practical challenge associated with demineralization related to dental diseases is incorporating a functional mineral microlayer which is fully integrated into the molecular structure of the tooth in repairing damaged enamel. This study demonstrates that small peptide domains derived from native protein amelogenin can be utilized to construct a mineral layer on damaged human enamel in vitro. Six groups were prepared to carry out remineralization on artificially created lesions on enamel: (1) no treatment, (2) Ca2+ and PO43– only, (3) 1100 ppm fluoride (F), (4) 20?000 ppm F, (5) 1100 ppm F and peptide, and (6) peptide alone. While the 1100 ppm F sample (indicative of common F content of toothpaste for homecare) did not deliver F to the thinly deposited mineral layer, high F test sample (indicative of clinical varnish treatment) formed mainly CaF2 nanoparticles on the surface. Fluoride, however, was deposited in the presence of the peptide, which also formed a thin mineral layer which was partially crystallized as fluorapatite. Among the test groups, only the peptide-alone sample resulted in remineralization of fairly thick (10 µm) dense mineralized layer containing HAp mineral, resembling the structure of the healthy enamel. The newly formed mineralized layer exhibited integration with the underlying enamel as evident by cross-sectional imaging. The peptide-guided remineralization approach sets the foundation for future development of biomimetic products and treatments for dental health care.

WO2017123986
REAGENTS AND METHODS FOR MINERALIZATION OF TOOTH ENAMEL
Inventor(s):  SARIKAYA et al.

Reagents and methods for whitening and remineralizing teeth using biomineralizing peptides are described.

BACKGROUND

Accumulation of various chromogcns/discolorants, for example, food and tobacco that come into contact daily onto tooth surfaces and their subsequent penetration into deeper regions (dentin), cause tooth discoloration. Furthermore, the process of aging, disease, trauma, certain medications, certain congenital conditions, and environmental effects can also cause teeth to become discolored. Although discolored teeth do not cause health problems, since bright white teem arc usually considered to be cosmetically desirable, there is a great deal of interest in developing compositions and methods for whitening teeth.

There arc several techniques for whitening or bleaching of teeth. Professional whitening methods, also known as "in-clinic" whitening strategics, arc considered presently as the most effective methods. These in-clinic whitening strategies typically involve the application of high-concentration peroxide products (up to 35%) and other abrasive chemicals to the discolored area. These peroxide species penetrate the stained area (up to underlying dentin layer) and dissolve the accumulated discoloring agents through an oxidation process. To achieve desired effects more quickly, such oxidation reactions on teeth arc often assisted with external laser light application, which heats up the reaction site and thereby increases the rate oxidation reaction. Furthermore, utilization of titanium dioxide up to 10% is often preferred to facilitate these photo- catalytic reactions. Other in-clinic whitening techniques involve superficially removing the enamel layer with abrasive instruments or pumice followed by treatment with additional caustic agents.

There arc several drawbacks of these in-clinic techniques. First of all, the abrasive chemicals and peroxide agents causes enamel demoralization and results with teeth sensitivity. In most cases sorc/injurcd gums as well as bad taste of the product itself cause much discomfort to the patients. Further, patients arc required to make a clinic appointment to get this medical service.

Other existing products for at-home use contain considerably lower concentrations of active oxidizing agents and, thus, arc generally less effective than in- clinic whitening strategics and products. Therefore, dramatic whitening effect can only be achieved by the repeated applications of these reagents for several weeks. These treatments often assisted with bleaching trays (night-guard) in order to better localize bleaching products and, thereby, maximize the whitening effect However, even though these at home products contain active whitening agents in lower concentrations, similar side effects as those associated with professional treatments arc very common. In addition, there arc paint-on, at-home whitening products, also known as "tooth varnishes", as well as whitening strips intended to eliminate the need for dental trays. However, these products require more frequent applications, usually 3-timcs in a day, to complete whitening procedure. Finally, among the variety of at-home use products, whitening toothpastes and gels are the least effective form of whitening products due to their short contact time with the tooth surfaces. Although bleaching agent additives augment the effectiveness, the whitening effect is primarily as a result of removal of surface stains via mechanical action of brushing and other polishing ingredients (for example, silica particles).

Dental caries is one of the major public health problems and it is a highly prevalent disease among the global population. Incipient caries and white spot lesions (WSL) as well as hypersensitivity, arc the earliest clinical evidence of enamel dcmincralization and dental caries. Dental caries occurs when tooth enamel is exposed to acid produced by cariogenic bacteria. As a result, acid diffuses into surface enamel and dissolves hydroxyapatite (HAp) mineral. Due to its non-rcgenerative nature, enamel is unable to heal and repair itself post-dcmincralization. Traditionally, fluoride (F) has been used as the key agent in prevention of caries. Fluoride functions primarily via topical mechanisms. It is believed that fluoride forms a thin layer of new but harder mineral, namely fluorapatitc (FAp) which is incorporated into the existing HAp mineral on the tooth surface. There is a trend of enhancing the rcmincralization effect of fluoride with calcium and phosphate supplementation in high risk individuals. Although controversial, the use of fluoride products remains the primary treatment modality for caries prevention and rcmincralization, with major limitations regarding the efficacy of these products for the reversal or prevention of dental caries. Fluoride delivery systems, therefore, arc not sufficient to overcome the high caries risk especially in younger and elderly population.

There is presently an unmet need for tooth whitening and mineralization methods and products that reduce or eliminate the need for concentrated, abrasive oxidizing agents and attendant side effects such as dcmincralization-associatcd tooth sensitivity and gum line injuries.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Herein we provide methods and compositions for whitening teeth where the natural color of teeth is restored and improved upon by generating newly formed thin mineral layer on discolored tooth surface using one or more biomineralizing polypeptides. Herein we also provide methods and compositions for mineralizing teeth.

In a first aspect, the present application provides a method for whitening teeth, comprising administering to a subject in need thereof an amount effective to whiten the teeth of a biomineralizing polypeptide. In some embodiments, the method for whitening teeth comprises administering to a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a composition comprising a biomineralizing polypeptide. In some embodiments, the biomineralizing polypeptide comprises an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of...

Conclusion & Significance: We developed a peptide-based aqueous mineralization methodology to treat dental hypersensitivity by forming a continuous mineral layer on the exposed dentin of human teeth in vitro. This biomimctic treatment provides a unique solution to dentinal hypersensitivity which can be used as a platform technology for in- clinic and over-the-counter hypersensitivity treatments.

https://www.globalresearch.ca/the-moment-of-truth-has-come-what-now-threat-to-life-on-planet-earth-ozone-dying-and-the-deadly-ultraviolet-cosmic-radiation/5637864

The Moment of Truth Has Come! What Now? Threat to Life on Planet Earth: Ozone Dying and the Deadly Ultraviolet Cosmic Radiation

By Prof. Claudia von Werlhof

1 Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, Vol. 14, Issue 2
J. Marvin Herndon, Raymond D. Hoisington and Mark Whiteside:
Deadly Ultraviolet UV-C and UV-B Penetration to Earth´s Surface: Human and Environmental Health Implications
http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/23870
http://www.journalrepository.org/media/journals/JGEESI_42/2018/Mar/Herndon1422018JGEESI40245.pdf
http://www.nuclearplanet.com/uv.html
http://www.nuclearplanet.com/uvc2.pdf

Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science International, ISSN: 2454-7352,Vol.: 14, Issue.: 2

Deadly Ultraviolet UV-C and UV-B Penetration to Earth’s Surface: Human and Environmental Health Implications

J. Marvin Herndon, et al.

Abstracts

Aims: The dangerous portion of ultraviolet radiation is widely believed to be completely absorbed by the atmosphere before reaching Earth’s surface. Our objective is to make multiple measurements at Earth’s surface of the solar irradiance spectrum in the range 200-400 nm.

Methods: We made numerous measurements of the solar irradiance spectrum in the range 200-400 nm at an elevation of 56 m with International Light Technologies ILT950UV Spectral Radiometer mounted on a Meade LXD55 auto guider telescope tripod and mount assembly.

Results: Our multifold measurements of solar irradiance spectra demonstrate conclusively that all wavelengths in the spectral range 200-400 nm reach Earth’s surface, contrary to the widespread perception that all UV-C and the majority of UV-B never reach the surface. We confirm the surface UV-C measurements of D’Antoni et al. (2007) that were disputed, based on faulty computer model calculations of atmospheric ozone, and thereafter ignored by the geoscience community.

Conclusions: The veracity of our data and D’Antoni et al. (2007)’s data call into question the validity of atmospheric ozone models. Further, we call into question the simplistic supposition of the Montreal Protocol that chloro-fluoro-hydrocarbons are the primary cause of ozone depletion, and point to the very heavy burden of halogens introduced into the atmosphere by ongoing jet-sprayed coal-fly-ash geoengineering. We demonstrate that satellite-based LISIRD solar spectra irradiance at the top of the atmosphere is badly flawed with some regions of the spectrum being less intense than measured at Earth’s surface. That calls into question any calculations made utilizing LISIRD data. We provide introductory information on the devastating effects of UV-B and UV-C on humans, phytoplankton, coral, insects and plants. These will be discussed in greater detail in subsequent articles.

http://www.nuclearplanet.com/
Science About the True Nature of Earth and Universe
Ongoing Coal-Fly-Ash Toxic Chemical Geoengineeringing

Particle Trails Over LondonSince at least 1958 the military has engaged in spraying particles into the air presumably to study weather modification. These activities were sporadic in time and location. But about 2010, during the Obama Administration, the aerial spraying of particulates became a near-daily activity across North America, the European Union, the British Commonwealth, and other countries including China, Egypt, India, Russia and perhaps others. This was a covert activity with denial and disinformation seemingly coordinated at all levels of government. No information was made available on the particle compositions sprayed into the air we all breathe, and no information on potentially adverse health risks. Following are statements/questions with links to answers...

J. Marvin Herndon, PhD and Mark Whiteside, MD, MPH to date are the only scientists to publish in the peer-reviewed scientific literature on the compositions and public health risks of the aerial spraying. To view their publications, click here.

http://www.nuclearplanet.com/Geoengineering_Scientific_Articles.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SpMxhsNYJ0g&list=PL60A4CF1FFC8A66A7

Turning Clay into Gold - The Secrets of Alchemy and Lustre

In the 8th century, potters working in what is now Iraq developed a mysterious process called "Lustre".

This gave an extraordinary metallic sheen which rivals even precious metals in its effect.

All but turning objects of Clay into Gold...

https://thefreethoughtproject.com/police-recruits-quit-program-call-out-dept-training-become-warriors-against-the-public/

Police Cadets Quit, Expose Dept. for Training Cops to View Public as ‘Cockroaches’ They’re at War With

Nearly a dozen police recruits quit their training program and are now calling out the department for trying to teach them aggressive tactics that do not serve or protect the public.
By
Jack Burns

It takes at least four years of college for an enlisted person in the military to become a military “officer,” which is quite a contrast from the mere nine months it takes for a police officer to earn the title. But according to a group of 10 former Austin Police Department recruits who wanted to become peace officers, just like the military, the Austin PD is training  “warriors” instead of “guardians.”

The former recruits are now blowing the whistle and claiming that the type of mentality they encountered is not what they signed up for and is not representative of the greater Austin community. KVUE writes:

Summer Spisak, a 38-year-old former tech employee who participated in nine weeks of the eight-month academy last year, said instructors told her and other cadets they would “punch them in the face” if they said they wanted to be police officers to help people.

Spisak and others are now sounding the alarm for the public, saying police are being trained to view community members as the enemy and not as their fellow citizens. “It’s so different from what is portrayed…It’s so different from my expectation of the Austin Police Department,” Spisak concluded...

Jonathan Murray, who now works in sales for Dell, said instructors repeatedly degraded the homeless and prostitutes, referring to them as “cockroaches” and suggesting they “find a transient” if they were bored and wanted a felony arrest....

http://woked.co/avocado-seeds-cure-cancer/?utm_source=Woked&utm_campaign=9f4d3d5147-RSS_EMAIL_CAMPAIGN&utm_medium=email utm_term=0_9af1002757-9f4d3d5147-10140021

Avocado Seeds Cure Cancer Conclusive Study Reveals

Here is why you should never throw away your avocado seeds...
1. Kills Cancer Cells
2. Enhances The Immune System
3. Heals Digestive Issues
4. Secures Heart Health ..

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G9V1-CBXPto

Scientists warn CANOLA OIL is TOXIC to your brain!

New science reveals that canola oil is surprisingly toxic to the human brain. The Health Ranger explains the findings. Learn more at
https://www.Ingredients.news
https://www.NaturalNews.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gx5SapUmu2E

Remote Viewing the Urantia Book - The Mantis Alien Agenda Exposed
Technical Intuition

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gz4G31LGyog

Asleep in 60 seconds: 4-7-8 breathing technique claims to help you nod off in just a minute
Dr Andrew Weil

The method, pioneered by Harvard-trained Dr Andrew Weill, is described as a 'natural tranquiliser for the nervous system' helping to quickly reduce tension and allowing the body to relax.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z5CrUgBn3uM
Emergency Climate Crisis is upon us

Dr. Peter Carter and others are warning the planet and all of humanity is in peril due to the consequences of the industrial age. Host Jack Etkin blames the media for not informing the public just how grave the danger has become.

My Pet Tardigrade says:
"I don't give a flying pyroflatulation !" :

[ Click to Enlarge ]

http://www.stateofourclimate.com/
The State of Our Climate System
The site for  vital climate data in monthly  images
ACCELERATING  PLANETARY EMERGENCY SIGNS

https://healthimpactnews.com/2018/american-doctor-kicked-out-of-africa-for-healing-ebola-with-ozone-therapy-instrumental-in-creating-international-ozone-without-borders/

American Doctor Kicked out of Africa for Healing Ebola with Ozone Therapy Instrumental in Creating International “Ozone Without Borders”
by Paul Fassa

https://www.youtube.com/user/RobertRowenMD
YouTube – Channel – Robert Rowen, M.D.

Related:
Nostradamus & The Plague
Ozone Therapy

Feel the Love !!!

http://www.rense.com/

Bono U2 joins Malema In Singing 'Kill The Boer (Whites)’ ... Black South African Racist Songs Of Death To Whites ... Another Typical Black Sub-Human Slaughter Of A White ... Farm Family As Blacks Yell 'Bury Whites Alive' ... Another White Farm Attack ... Murder At A White Family Reunion ... Proof SA Police Service Are Actively Involved In White Farm Attacks, Tortures And Murders ... MSM Remains Silent On Farm Murders And Torture ... 11 Farm Attacks In 100 HOURS ... South Africa Ascending Into Chaos ... Protest Against Farm Murders SA Embassy In US ... Today Black Looting Now The Norm…No Protesting ... Farm Attackers Kill Each Other ... Community Upliftment Activist Attacked... &c...

Related: NELSON, R.: Goodbye, Cape Town -- The Schumann-Marks Fog Fence could save the city, but why bother?

Hahahahahaha !!! Play it again, Sam !

Feel the Love !!!

http://medcraveonline.com/IJVV/IJVV-04-00072.php
Int J Vaccines Vaccin 4(1): 00072.
DOI: 10.15406/ijvv.2017.04.00072

New Quality-Control Investigations on Vaccines: Micro- and Nanocontamination
Antonietta M Gatti and Stefano Montanari
Abstract
Vaccines are being under investigation for the possible side effects they can cause. In order to supply new information, an electron-microscopy investigation method was applied to the study of vaccines, aimed at verifying the presence of solid contaminants by means of an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with an X-ray microprobe. The results of this new investigation show the presence of micro- and nanosized particulate matter composed of inorganic elements in vaccines’ samples which is not declared among the components and whose unduly presence is, for the time being, inexplicable. A considerable part of those particulate contaminants have already been verified in other matrices and reported in literature as non biodegradable and non biocompatible. The evidence collected is suggestive of some hypotheses correlated to diseases that are mentioned and briefly discussed.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bvtz3iNTx60

Nanoparticles polluting vaccines - Stefano Montanari & Antonietta Gatti

Two italian researchers have found nanoparticles are polluting almost all vaccines. The small size of these particles allow them to enter our cells and have a permanent inflammatory effect. Mrs Gatti was about to testify in parliament enquiry on vaccine damages of italian military courses but both researches have been raided by police and all their material has been taken away

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TlmXepiEMC8

The Future of Oil Changes - New Invention

Engine oil change. The Future of oil changes, new invention with Scotty Kilmer. This new oil drain valve will change the way you change the engine oil in your car. You don't need tools anymore to change your oil with this new invention. It also doesn't make a mess when you drain the old engine oil. Everyone needs this oil drain valve invention...

11 Plants That Repel Mosquitoes

1. Citronella ... 2. Lemon Balm ... 3. Catnip ... 4. Marigolds ... 5. Basil ... 6. Lavender ... 7. Peppermint ... 8. Garlic ... 9. Pennyroyal ... 10. Rosemary ... 11. Geranium

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180419141523.htm

Novel antioxidant makes old blood vessels seem young again

Older adults who take an antioxidant that specifically targets mitochondria see age-related changes in blood vessels reverse by the equivalent of 15 to 20 years within six weeks, a new study shows. ...

...20 milligrams per day of a supplement called MitoQ, made by chemically altering the naturally-occurring antioxidant Coenzyme Q10 to make it cling to mitochondria inside cells...

The researchers found that when taking the supplement, dilation of subjects' arteries improved by 42 percent, making their blood vessels, at least by that measure, look like those of someone 15 to 20 years younger. An improvement of that magnitude, if sustained, is associated with about a 13 percent reduction in heart disease, Rossman said. The study also showed that the improvement in dilation was due to a reduction in oxidative stress...

The same lab published another study recently, showing that a compound called nicotinamide riboside may also be able to reverse vascular aging in healthy subjects...

http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/early/2018/04/13/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.10787
Hypertension, 2018
DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.10787

Chronic Supplementation With a Mitochondrial Antioxidant (MitoQ) Improves Vascular Function in Healthy Older Adults.
Matthew J. Rossman, et al.

Abstract

Excess reactive oxygen species production by mitochondria is a key mechanism of age-related vascular dysfunction. Our laboratory has shown that supplementation with the mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant MitoQ improves vascular endothelial function by reducing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and ameliorates arterial stiffening in old mice, but the effects in humans are unknown. Here, we sought to translate our preclinical findings to humans and determine the safety and efficacy of MitoQ. Twenty healthy older adults (60–79 years) with impaired endothelial function (brachial artery flow–mediated dilation <6%) underwent 6 weeks of oral supplementation with MitoQ (20 mg/d) or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design study. MitoQ was well tolerated, and plasma MitoQ was higher after the treatment versus placebo period (P<0.05). Brachial artery flow–mediated dilation was 42% higher after MitoQ versus placebo (P<0.05); the improvement was associated with amelioration of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species–related suppression of endothelial function (assessed as the increase in flow-mediated dilation with acute, supratherapeutic MitoQ [160 mg] administration; n=9; P<0.05). Aortic stiffness (carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity) was lower after MitoQ versus placebo (P<0.05) in participants with elevated baseline levels (carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity >7.60 m/s; n=11). Plasma oxidized LDL (low-density lipoprotein), a marker of oxidative stress, also was lower after MitoQ versus placebo (P<0.05). Participant characteristics, endothelium-independent dilation (sublingual nitroglycerin), and circulating markers of inflammation were not different (all P>0.1). These findings in humans extend earlier preclinical observations and suggest that MitoQ and other therapeutic strategies targeting mitochondrial reactive oxygen species may hold promise for treating age-related vascular dysfunction.

https://examine.com/supplements/mitoq/
MitoQ
Sources and Structure
1.1. Sources
MitoQ is a term used to refer to mitoquinone mesylate ( with {10-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3,6-dioxo-1,4-cycloheexadienlyl) decyl triphenylphosphonium methanesulfonate}) as the prolonged chemical name), which is a derivative of CoQ10 where said molecule is covalently bonded to a triphenylphosphonium cation.

The CoQ10 moiety is delivered to the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial matrix,[1] which is the site of most mitochondrial oxidative stress.[2] Despite accumulation in the mitrochondria, however, MitoQ is a poor substrate for the electron transport chain (at complex I) and is not thought to contribute much to bioenergetics.[3][4]

Biological Significance
Oral administration of MitoQ in otherwise healthy wild type mice over 28 weeks fails to significantly alter mitochondrial function or gene expression, and no overall influence on systemic energy metabolism.[5]

Neurology
2.1. Dementia
Alzheimer's is known to be associated with mitochondrial abnormalities in neurons associated with oxidative stress[6][7]
Beta-amyloid toxicity has been noted to be reduced in N2a cells with MitoQ incubation[8] and at 1-100nM mostly abolished cell death from amyloid proteins (no dose dependence noted).[9]
100μM of MitoQ daily to a mouse model of Alzheimer's has been noted to improve spatial memory and cognitive performance associated with a reduction in lipid peroxidation.[9]

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180426125947.htm

Proof of water wires motivated by a biological water channel

The discovery could lead potentially to artificial aquaporin membranes for desalination systems

Aquaporins are proteins that serve as water channels to regulate the flow of water across biological cell membranes. They also remove excess salt and impurities in the body, and it is this aspect that has led to much interest in recent years in how to mimic the biochemical processes of aquaporins potentially for water desalination systems...

...Through their experimental studies, Belfort and Petersen have found that not only does water exist in the imidazole water channel, but also that the imidazole ring construct induces the water molecules to self-assemble into a highly oriented linear chain structure -- or what the researchers have dubbed "water wires."

"For the first time, we have made a direct observation of this unique water structure inside a synthetic water channel that mimics an aquaporin," Belfort said.

Belfort and his colleagues also discovered that the chirality of the imidazole molecules orients the water molecules and could increase the permeability of water through the water channel compared with achiral (i.e., not chiral) imidazole molecules that they also assembled. Chirality happens when a mirror image of an object is not superimposable -- for example, your left and right hand...

http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/3/eaao5603
Science Advances  23 Mar 2018:Vol. 4, no. 3, eaao5603
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao5603
Oriented chiral water wires in artificial transmembrane channels
Istvan Kocsis, et al.
Abstract

Aquaporins (AQPs) feature highly selective water transport through cell membranes, where the dipolar orientation of structured water wires spanning the AQP pore is of considerable importance for the selective translocation of water over ions. We recently discovered that water permeability through artificial water channels formed by stacked imidazole I-quartet superstructures increases when the channel water molecules are highly organized. Correlating water structure with molecular transport is essential for understanding the underlying mechanisms of (fast) water translocation and channel selectivity. Chirality adds another factor enabling unique dipolar oriented water structures. We show that water molecules exhibit a dipolar oriented wire structure within chiral I-quartet water channels both in the solid state and embedded in supported lipid bilayer membranes (SLBs). X-ray single-crystal structures show that crystallographic water wires exhibit dipolar orientation, which is unique for chiral I-quartets. The integration of I-quartets into SLBs was monitored with a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, quantizing the amount of channel water molecules. Nonlinear sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy demonstrates the first experimental observation of dipolar oriented water structures within artificial water channels inserted in bilayer membranes. Confirmation of the ordered confined water is obtained via molecular simulations, which provide quantitative measures of hydrogen bond strength, connectivity, and the stability of their dipolar alignment in a membrane environment. Together, uncovering the interplay between the dipolar aligned water structure and water transport through the self-assembled I-quartets is critical to understanding the behavior of natural membrane channels and will accelerate the systematic discovery for developing artificial water channels for water desalting.

http://radicalsciencenews.org/the-origin-of-life/

The Origin of Life

Researchers have had a breakthrough in the central questions about #the origin of life. A collaboration of physicists and biologists in Germany has found a simple mechanism that might have enabled liquid droplets to evolve into living #cells in early Earth’s primordial soup.

How did these first cells arose from primitive precursors? What were those precursors, dubbed “#protocells,” and how did they come alive?   How could something as complex as a membrane start to self-replicate and proliferate, allowing #evolution to act on it?

New work by David Zwicker along with the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems and the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, both in Dresden, may have an answer. The scientists studied the physics of “chemically active” droplets, which cycle chemicals in and out of the surrounding fluid, and discovered these droplets tend to grow to cell size and divide, just like cells, as well as move across cells via diffusion.  This active droplet behavior is different from more familiar tendencies of oil droplets in water, which glom together into bigger and bigger droplets without dividing.

Frank Jülicher, a biophysicist in Dresden and co-author of the new paper said, It makes it more plausible that there could have been spontaneous emergence of life from nonliving soup...

Sources:
Nature 491, 524–525 (22 November 2012) -- In Retrospect: The Origin of Life
Science  26 Jun 2009: Vol. 324, Issue 5935, pp. 1729-1732 -- Germline P Granules Are Liquid Droplets That Localize by Controlled Dissolution/Condensation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=88JFcNftFBA
The Origin of Life

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PqPGOhXoprU

Jack Szostak (Harvard/HHMI) Part 1: The Origin of Cellular Life on Earth

Szostak begins his lecture with examples of the extreme environments in which life exists on Earth. He postulates that given the large number of earth-like planets orbiting sun-like stars, and the ability of microbial life to exist in a wide range of environments, it is probable that an environment that could support life exists somewhere in our galaxy. However, whether or not life does exist elsewhere, depends on the answer to the question of how difficult it is for life to arise from the chemistry of the early planets. Szostak proceeds to demonstrate that by starting with simple molecules and conditions found on the early earth, it may in fact be possible to generate a primitive, self-replicating protocell.

Related: NELSON, R.: The Next Bigly Thing -- Spontaneous Generation

https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1302/1302.1059.pdf
http://www.e-booksdirectory.com/details.php?ebook=8756

Crystal Structure and Chemistry of Topological Insulators
R.J. Cava, Huiwen Ji, M.K. Fuccillo, Q.D. Gibson, Y.S. Hor

Topological surface states, a new kind of electronic state of matter, have recently been observed on the cleaved surfaces of crystals of a handful of small band gap semiconductors. The goals of this review are to briefly introduce the physics of topological insulators to a chemical audience and to describe the chemistry, defect chemistry, and crystal structures of the compounds in this emergent field.

Continuing Education for Alchemists:
Mickey Mouse / The Worm Turns

[Click to Enlarge]

https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introduction_to_Inorganic_Chemistry

Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry
Contents
1 Chapter 1: Review of Chemical Bonding
2 Chapter 2: Molecular Orbital Theory
3 Chapter 3: Acid-Base Chemistry
4 Chapter 4 : Redox Stability and Redox Reactions
5 Chapter 5 : Coordination Chemistry and Crystal Field Theory
6 Chapter 6 : Metals and Alloys: Structure, Bonding, Electronic and Magnetic Properties
7 Chapter 7 : Metals and Alloys: Mechanical Properties
8 Chapter 8 : Ionic and Covalent Solids - Structures
9 Chapter 9 : Ionic and Covalent Solids - Energetics
10 Chapter 10 : Electronic Properties of Materials: Superconductors and Semiconductors
11 Chapter 11: Basic Science of Nanomaterials
12 Chapter 12: Resources for Students and Teachers

http://radicalsciencenews.org/harvard-rewinds-the-biological-clock/

Harvard Rewinds the Biological Clock

...Study senior investigator David Sinclair, professor in the Department of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and co-director of the Paul F. Glenn Center for the Biology of Aging at Harvard Medical School stated “we’ve discovered a way to reverse vascular aging by boosting the presence of naturally occurring molecules in the body that augment the physiological response to exercise.”...

Abhirup Das, the studies first author, who conducted the work as a post-doctoral fellow in Sinclair’s lab, currently a visiting scholar in genetics at Harvard Medical School and a post-doctoral research fellow at the University of South New Wales School of Medical Sciences, said that “we reasoned that declining NAD+ levels reduce SIRT1 activity and thus interfere with aging mice’s ability to grow new blood vessels.”

The researchers then set their sights on the NAD+, which is a critical coenzyme for enzymes that fuel reduction-oxidation reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another, and as a cosubstrate for other enzymes such as the sirtuins and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerases.

The scientists used a chemical compound that’s an NAD+ booster called NMN (no not m&m!) which plays a critical role in repairing cellular DNA as well as maintaining cell vitality to test what would happen.

One of the results showed that treatment from NMN caused endothelial cells from humans and mice to have strong growth capacity and reduced cell death....

The team then wondered what would happen to a group of mice that were 20 months old—the rough equivalent of 70 in human years given NMN. After a 2 month time span the results showed that NMN treatment restored the number of blood capillaries and capillary density to those seen in younger mice. Blood flow to the muscles also increased and was significantly higher than blood supply to the muscles seen in same-age mice that didn’t receive NMN.

That wasn’t the most surprising result to the researchers however. What they discovered was that the aging mice showed in comparison to the entreated mice that they regained the capacity to exercise by 56 and 80% more. The untreated mice could only run 240 meters, or 780 feet, on average whereas the mice treated with NMN could run 430 meters, or about 1,400 feet, on average. This treatment could be an answer to humans who have lost the capacity to exercise due to other disabilities or age-related diseases.

The next step for the researchers was to explore methods for boosting the activity of SIRT1. To do this the researchers added a second compound NaHS, sodium hydrosulfide, which is known to be a precursor of SIRT1.

For four weeks a group of mice that were 32-month-old mice—the rough equivalent to 90 in human years—receiving the combo treatment. The results were significant! Not only were the mice able to run longer and faster but they were able to outperform the untreated mice by a longshot. The treated mice ran 1.6 times further than the untreated mice...

http://cdn.sci-news.com/images/enlarge/image_2174e-Geologic-Map-Mars.jpg
http://www.sci-news.com/space/science-geologic-map-mars-02174.html

Scientists Create New Geologic Map of Mars

A team of researchers led by Dr Kenneth Tanaka of the U.S. Geological Survey has produced a new global geologic map of Mars that records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet’s surface through time.

http://www.sci-news.com/medicine/baking-soda-inflammation-autoimmune-diseases-05954.html

Drinking Baking Soda Daily May Help Reduce Inflammation Caused by Autoimmune Diseases

The new study indicates that oral NaHCO3 activates a splenic anti-inflammatory pathway and provides evidence that the signals that mediate this response are transmitted to the spleen via a novel neuronal-like function of mesothelial cells. Image credit: Sci-News.com.

A team of researchers at Augusta University has shown that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3), it becomes a trigger for the stomach to make more acid to digest the next meal and for little-studied mesothelial cells sitting on the spleen to tell the fist-sized organ that there’s no need to mount a protective immune response.

http://radicalsciencenews.org/cold-fusion-real-revolutionary-and-ready-says-leading-scandinavian-newspaper-atom-ecology/

COLD FUSION Real, Revolutionary, and Ready Says Leading Scandinavian Newspaper

...April 2, 2016... Physicist Sindre Zeiner-Gundersen, who revealed details of an operating experimental cold fusion device in Norway generating 20 times more energy than required to activate it! According to Scandinavian physicists ‘cold fusion’ happens due to the formation of ultradense hydrogen/deuterium as described in the widely acclaimed work and theoretical understanding by professor Svein Olafsson and Norway’s Professor Svein Holmlid...

“I understand actually criticism from Röhrich well. We had a good discussion, and I agree that probably 95 percent of everything that has been done within the cold fusion field is experimental error. Most have only using luck managed to produce energy. But the last 5 percent is scientifically published. Röhrich do not know cold fusion literature and have not had time to go through all these experiments. Therefore he shows a healthy skepticism which I respect”, says Olafsson.

“Holmlid experiments are structured so that any minimal sign of radioactivity is a simple, beautiful, strong and irrefutable evidence that reveals immediate consequences in the saga and mystery of cold fusion. Such cold fusion is observed in over 100 published articles since 1989. But experiments where radioactivity can be turn on and off in a controlled manner – like his, is not possible by any known theory,” he says...

Planet X Alert !!! Run Away !!!

[ Click to Enlarge ]

2.3 Billion Years Ago ( Paleoproterozoic era ) -- The Great Oxidation Event

2100 AD -- The Great Anoxia Event

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