Email from Dr W. S. Eidelman (1-03): "Trombly's design is distinctly different from DePalma's. Trombly used the "closed-path" homopolar design, whereas DePalma used an "open-path" design. Trombly's worked, an DePalma's almost worked. Tewari received Trombly's clsoed path design in the mail, from DePalma, who happened onto an international patent application design, without Trombly's knowledge. Because Tewari's theoretical physics were in line with these technologies, and because, as head of nuclear power safety at the nuclear power station near Bombay, he had time, equipment, and funds, he tried out the Trombly/Kahn design, and succeeded..."
Generation of Electrical Power from Absolute Vacuum
by P. Tewari
The universe can be broadly divided into space and dynamic matter with its motion governed by an intelligent scheme that permits an organized movement of all cosmic material bodies like moons, planets, stars and galaxies In addition to space and matter, another basic entity, energy, was shown to be the constituent of all universal matter as per Einstein's Theory of Relativity, propounded at the start of this century. The interconvertibility of matter and energy extended the domain of universal reality from visible matter to invisible energy. Some recent experiments performed in USA and India and possibly in other countries too, have produced certain astonishing results as per which electrical power can be generated from absolute vacuum or space which is a phenomenon hitherto unknown. This new finding shall force a positive conclusion on substantial reality of space and will further enlarge the domain of basic reality from matter and energy, as known today, to the whole of the universal space.
Electric power is a phenomenon of current flow in an electrical conductor at some voltage or electric pressure. On the nature of electric current, it was discovered by the close of 19th century, that it is constituted of electrons, the subatomic particles that carry basic unit of electric charge. In electric power generators, electrons are produced from atoms of a conductor as it cuts through a magnetic field, and external power is therefore required to produce electrons and make them flow in load circuit. The external sources of power in modern technology of power generation, are mainly thermal, hydroelectric and nuclear. Electric power production, today is a process of conversion of energy from one form to another rather than 'generation' in a true sense. Whereas the newly discovered process of generation of electric power from 'absolute vacuum' does not need any raw material like coal, nuclear fuel or a hydrogen source.
At the face of it, it sounds unbelievable, that vacuum which is considered by current scientific theories as a void or a state of nothingness can ever generate energy out of its own substratum. As per modern physics while 'absolute vacuum' or 'space' can no doubt transmit electromagnetic energy, in the absence of universal matter and its associated energy fields, there can be no energy-content that is ‘reality’ in space. The concept of ether filling all space and atoms as 'vortices of ether' introduced by Rene Descartes(1596-1650) and developed to a great extent by the close of 19th century found no favour in the early 20th century. Though the domain of reality was extended from matter to energy by Einstein's Relativity Theory, yet space devoid of universal matter ceased to have any substantiality. In the new phenomenon of space power generation (SPG) electrical power is produced by rotating at high speed conducting disc magnets or electromagnets, named as N-Generator by Bruce De Palma, a U.S. inventor. In 1978 he discovered that electrical power produced by such a device did not require an equivalent energy input to the drive motor that rotated the N-Generator. The experimental results are in violation of the 'law of conservation of energy' unless it is supposed that the additional energy is generated within the interatomic vacuum or space in the rotating body of the N-Generator. A new theory on space, energy and matter, Space Vortex Theory (SVT) which posits the concept of dynamic space as the most fundamental substratum of reality, and electrons as 'vortices of space' explains the principles behind SPG phenomenon. As per SVT, all universal matter is created from substantial space, just as bubbles, vortices and waves are produced in an ocean of water. It is space that has manifested as planets, stars and galaxies is the conclusion of SVT. Space is more fundamental than matter. There is no point in space that is devoid of reality. Thus the domain of reality already extended from matter to energy by Relativity Theory encompasses the whole of the universal space as per SVT.
A space power generator consists of a soft-iron core on which electromagnet coils are wound. Both the coils and the iron core are rotated together, there being no relative motion between the magnetic field and the soft iron conductor of the core. A vortex of space is formed in the rotating iron, due to which electrical charge is produced, which interacts with orbital electrons of the iron atoms and sets them free. The free electrons are interacted with the magnetic field creating positive and negative polarities between which output power at high current and few volts is drawn.
In the future when the newly discovered principles of SPG are made technically viable, electrical generators of capacity in tens of kilowatts and of sizes comparable with conventional electrical generators will be providing electrical power to remote regions, presently with no power distribution network and for such installations where power requirement of each unit is limited to say about 10~ kW.
The space power generators will require initial drive before becoming self-sustaining, for which conventional diesel engines or battery power will be needed. A number of units of N-generators installed at one location can meet larger load requirements for rural electrification and may be smaller towns as well. Modern technology is well advanced to undertake construction of these new machines that do not require any such specialized items of materials that need long time development. High speed rotation of machines and collection of power at few volts but very large currents will require special attention in the development of space power generators.
On space being filled with energy that created matter, Michelson in 1899 had remarked, "Suppose that an ether strain corresponds to an electric charge, an ether displacement to the electric current, ether vortices to the atoms; if we continue these suppositions, we arrive at what may be one of the grandest generalization of modern science, namely, that all the phenomena of the physical universe are only different manifestations of the various modes of motion of one all pervading substance, the ether". At the close of 19th century, the concept of ether filling all space as introduced by Descartes was about to be recognized as the basic reality. Earlier to Descartes, Thales (624-546 B.C) a Greek philosopher considered water as the primary substance in the universe. The Upanishadic Rishis of Bharat, however, thousands of years ago, proclaimed that 'Akasha’ or space is the first element that gave birth to air. From air was born fire or heat and their various combinations produced water and earth. Very rightly indeed, did the Upanishads discriminate among the five elements pinpointing the akasha as the most fundamental entity potent with energy. This experiment on generation of power from space will reestablish Vedantic philosophy of eternal existence of Akasha as a substratum, the ‘one reality' out of which the cosmic worlds arose. The new science of space power generation will scientifically vindicate the vedantic science on the evolution of the universe.
The N-Generator has been further developed in the USA by De Palma, Trombly and Kahn, who could generate about 45 Kw of power with an input of only 9 Kw, thus getting an incremental power ratio of output further to input, about 5. Bruce De Palma is also further developing his N- generator, trying to achieve perpetual motion. He is quite close to success. The model of space power generator built at Tarapur Atomic Power Station for demonstration of the new principle gave an incremental power ratio of output to input about 2.5. This machine is proposed to be taken to West Germany for demonstration at Hannover in an International Conference for Gravity Field Energy, that will be held there in mid-March 1987. From letters received from USA, West Germany and many other countries, it is evident that the 'over-unity' system which is the name given to space power generation, is catching attention of world scientists and engineers. Being an entirely new technology, it has presently some controversy too associated with its development, especially in USA. The proposed conference at Hannover being organised by Dr Hans Nieper, President, German Association of Gravity Field Energy, West Germany, Hannover, to which I have been invited to deliver a talk on 'Space Vortex Theory' will hopefully be an interesting forum to discuss with scientists and engineers, the new and novel phenomenon of Space Power generation.
Today's need for power is met by man at the cost of ecological balance that nature inherently devises through its forests, rivers, mountains end oceans, and atmospheric belt of air. The pollution of planet through excessive combustion of coal, oil and gases, deforestation and other hazards to the maintenance of clear environment in populated areas, will be prevented to a good extent with the development of power generation from Vacuum.
Maybe it is the final jump of progress in power generation technology that energy is produced from space, which is not only the cleanest resource for power, but will also outlive all forms of cosmic matter both inanimate and animate.
Violation of Law of Conservation of Charge in Space Power Generation Phenomenon
( Chief Project Engineer, Kaiga Project, Nuclear Power Corp., Karwar, India)
(Reprinted from Magnets In Your Future )
It has been hitherto believed in physics that the total electric charge in the Universe is a constant quantity, and if additional charge appears in some region, it is only at the expense of the charge deficit in some other regions. It is a basic law that electric charge is conserved and cannot be destroyed or created. Precise experiments on a Space Power Generator (SPG) which has been now further developed to demonstrate the commercial viability of the newly discovered phenomenon of space power generation however, totally violate the existing law of conservation of charge, by generating output electrical power much in excess of the input electrical power. Since electric charge is a form of basic energy, the law of conservation of energy will need to be enlarged to incorporate in it the dynamics of absolute vacuum (Ref. 1), which in a state of rotation generates fundamental field to produce electrical charge and energy.
Description of the SPG ~
The SPG shown in Figure (1) is a further developed form of the machines described (Ref. 2,3) in earlier issues of this magazine. A non-magnetic shaft interconnects two mild steel rotors on which two electromagnets are mounted. Electric power at 1.5 volt dc and high amperes is drawn fro each unit, with the help of copper-graphite brushes when the machine runs at 2860 rpm directly coupled and driven by an induction motor. The power is drawn between the inner rotor’s cylindrical surface and the shaft through dc shunts that enable measurements of high dc current. The SPG weighs about 150 kg and is fabricated out of 120 mm thick mild steel plate. The two units enable generation of power at more than 3 volts dc by appropriate series connections between the two coils. The electromagnet’s coils are 16 swg super enameled wire with 216 turns in each coil. The feature that brings improvements (Ref. 4) in this machine is the larger diameter of the rotors that produce higher dc voltage at comparatively lower speed, not exceeding 3000 rpm. Also the twin units with a single coil in each unit double the amount of power.
Test Results ~
The drive motor (DM) takes no-load current of 2.6 amperes (1300 watts) to rotate itself and the SPG to overcome windage and friction at 2870 rpm. The no-load voltage internally generated in each unit of the SPG is adjusted to 1.5 volts dc between the shaft and the inner rotor by the control of the dc excitation current in the two electromagnets’ coils connected in series. The excitation current is 31 amperes, the total dc resistance of the two coils being 2.5 ohms. The power given to the electromagnets is 31 x 31 x 2.5, that is, 2400 watts. The two shunts with calibration of 200 amperes for 75 mV are now connected across the two output circuits. The dc currents measured in each circuit are almost equal to 2613 amperes corresponding to 98 mV reading of the shunt. The output electrical power of each unit is 2613 x 1.5 watts, that is 3919 watts. Total electrical power from the two units is 7839 watts. As the SPG is electrically loaded, the current of DM rises to 10 amperes, showing a rise of 7.4 amperes over the no-load current, and corresponding to a rise in input electrical power of 3700 watts.
The load current of the DM of 10 amperes amounts to the total electrical input to the DM of 5000 watts, out of which 1300 watts is utilized to overcome the no-load losses. The remaining electrical input of 3700 watts generates 7839 watts of electrical output power, giving the efficiency of space power generation in this particular machine as 211.8%. Assuming electromagnetic efficiency of the DM as 80%, the efficiency of the electrical energy generation of the SPG will rise to 264.75%
If the excitation power of 2400 watts given to the SPG is deducted from the SPG of 7839 watts, the balance electrical output of 5439 watts still exceeds the total electrical input of 5000 watts by 439 watts, giving the total system efficiency of 105.9% while, in addition the DM-SPG set runs as a perpetual system drawing 1300 watts of power from space.
Quantum of Space Power ~
The quantum of electrical charge produced due to the rotation of space in a rotating electromagnet and the electrical power produced when the power is withdrawn through an electric circuit, as discussed in an earlier article (Ref 2), is given by:
(1) P = (1.8) LNr210-5 kW
where, P is the power in kW, L is the axial length of the SPG in centimeters, N is the revolutions per second, and ‘r’ is the radius in centimeters of the SPG on the inner rotor surface.
The derivation of the above relation was based on the assumption that the radius of the spherical void at the center of the electron as discussed in space vortex theory (Ref. 1, 2) is 1.5 x 10-11 cm. More precise measurements in space power generation experiments, however, show that the coefficient 1.8 in equation (1) should be 2.5, and the void radius at the electron’s center should be taken as 10-11 cm. With these corrections the space power equation (1) now becomes:
(2) P = (2.5) LNr210-5 kW
Substituting the values, L = 12, N = 47.6, and r = 11.43 in Eq. (2), P = 5.85 kW.
Since there are two units of the SPG on the shaft, total power from the two units will be 11.7 kW, which is 1.5 times the output power drawn from the machine in the above test. With additional brushes and reduced brush contacts at about 3000 rpm, the above machine will have capacity to produce about 12 kW of power. If the SPG is driven at 6000 rpm both the voltages and currents will be doubled, producing 4 times output of about 48 kW. Since the excitation power remains constant, much higher total system efficiency is expected though the efficiency of the SPG as computed above will remain constant at 211.8%.
The mass-energy equation of Einstein brought forth a universal law that an electron like all matter contains energy in its structure. A further enlargement of this law is that the electron itself is energy, where "energy" in physical terms is a state of vacuum in rotation. Even at ordinary speed of rotation of an electromagnet, the interatomic space of the iron core develops velocity fields of vacuum that qualitatively act like additional charge within the rotating system and liberate orbital electrons of the iron atoms. The interaction of the magnetic field and free electrons form polarities (Ref. 2, 3). It is possible to commercially develop a machine that can not only rotate itself perpetually but also generate additional electrical energy in kilowatts and higher range. The law of conservation of charge and the law of conservation of energy are applicable within the systems confined to material interactions alone and not to the medium of space which is a dynamic entity that can rotate and create charge at ordinary speeds, and can rotate and create electrons at the speed of light.
1) Paramahansa Tewari: Beyond Matter; 1984, Printwell Publications, Aligarh, India.
2) P. Tewari: Magnets In Your Future 1(8), August 1986; P.O. Box 580, Temecula, CA 92390.
3) P. Tewari: Magnets In Your Future 2(12), December 1987.
4) Bruce DePalma: "Report on the Initial Testing Phase of DePalma Energy Corporation"
Figure (1): Space Power Generator ~
India Patent Specification
(12 August 1994)
High Efficiency Space Power Generator
Address: Project Director, Kaiga Project, Nuclear Power Corporation (Centre-1, World Trade Centre, Cuffe Parade, Bombay 400 005 )
The following specification particularly describes and ascertains the nature of this invention and the manner in which it is to be performed:
Scope of Invention:
Generation of low dc voltage at high current and high efficiency is the field covered by this invention.
History of the Invention:
In 1974 a generalized theory of matter and energy which showed that energy can be developed in vacuum by positing electron’s structure was proposed by the writer and the same was registered with the Copy Right Office, Government of India (Registration number L6823/ 74). The writer also had published his works entitled, "The Substantial Space and Void-nature of Elementary Material Particles", in 1977, and "Space Vortices of Energy and Matter", in 1978. Bruce DePalma, erstwhile lecturer, MIT, USA, having learnt then on above theoretical works wrote to the writer in May 1978 and sent some details of his experiments on rotation of conducting disc magnets by which electrical power could be generated at high efficiency. Since then and more vigorously since 1985, the writer performed many experiments to pinpoint the source of generation of additional power, and named the machines developed by the writer as "Space Power Generator". Bruce DePalma had named his own system of rotating magnets as "N-Generator" based on his discovery of "N-effect". In an article, "On the possibility of Extraction of Electrical Energy Directly from Space", Bruce DePalma wrote in April 1990, "A parallel program of Space Power Generators (SPG) has been taking place in India since 1978. P. Tewari of the Indian Atomic Board had developed a generalized theory of matter and energy, which showed that energy could be developed from the vacuum by positing a structure for electron. Having received the experimental results of the ‘Sunburst’ machine he instituted an R&D program to develop practical versions of the SPG for general use. Tewari has constructed N-machine/SPG apparatus which produces excess output power over that required to rotate the generator when all losses have been subtracted from the output generated power".
The German Association of Gravity Field Energy invited the writer to an International Conference held at Hannover in 1987 to deliver a lecture on his research on "Space Power Generation" and awarded the first prize for the demonstration of a working model of SPG. Also, on his new field of research, many papers by the writer have been published in the Proceedings of the International Conferences in USA and Italy where he was invited to deliver invited talks. The present patent application pertains to "High Efficiency Space Power Generator (SPG)" invented by the writer through his experiments given in the above published papers.
In electromagnetic induction, which is the principle used in conventional dc generators, electromotive force (EMF) is induced when magnetic flux cuts a conductor due to motion of the conductor relative to the flux or vice-versa. Also, EMF is induced when flux linkage with the conductor changes with time. Faraday in 1832 rotated together a copper disc and a magnet with the magnetic field at right angles to the surface of the copper disc, and noticed the generation of EMF between the periphery of the disc and its axis, thought here was no relative motion between the copper disc and the magnetic field. The effect noticed by Faraday does not appear in engineering textbooks and therefore is not known to many. DePalma’s experiments too are similar to Faraday’s in the sense that an electromagnet, with a cylindrical core and the electric coil integrally mounted on it, is rotated to produce EMF between its periphery and the axis of rotation. In this system the efficiency of electrical power produced as discovered by Bruce DePalma is at very high efficiency. The writer discovered through his experiments that in a rotating integral assembly of cylindrical iron core and electric coil mounted around it, EMF is induced also in radial conductors in the core and without being in contact with the core except at the central axis of rotation, despite the fact that it has no contact with the steady magnetic field in the core. This unique effect of magnetic induction was published by the write in an article entitled "Electromagnetic Induction of Space Substratum", page 16, Jan-Feb 1992, Journal of Borderland Research, CA, USA, and is the basic concept utilized in the development of the present invention. To summarize:
1. Faraday discovered that electromagnetic induction, in a co-rotating assembly of conducting disc and disc magnet is possible.
2. Bruce DePalma discovered the above effect of Faraday and also that electrical power produced through such a co-rotating magnet field-conductor system is at very high efficiency.
3. The writer discovered that electromagnetic induction in such a co-rotating magnetic-conductor system can take place even when the radial conductor embedded in the conducting disc is neither in contact with the magnetic field nor is cut by the magnetic field.
The development of this invention took place due to the above new phenomena of electromagnetic induction.
Brief description of the Invention:
Refer to Figure 12. An electric coil (15) is rigidly mounted on a cylindrical iron core (17) and rotated with a drive motor. Radial non-magnetic stainless steel studs (7, 16), welded to the shaft, pass through the inner cylindrical rotors (5, 17) without touching the same. The stainless steel studs are grouped in pairs, and each pair shares a common hole in the inner rotor. Half the stainless steel studs in one plane terminate on a common non-magnetic metal ring (inner ring) (8) encircling the inner rotor (5). Fixed carbon brushes (12) slide on this ring and form one of the output terminals (10) of the SPG. The remaining stainless steel studs, also in one plane, terminate on another non-magnetic metal ring (outer ring) (11) encircling the inner core (17) and also the end cover (14) and mounted in between the air gap (28) created due to the two halves of the outer iron covers (9, 14). Fixed brushes (29) on this outer ring form the other output terminal (13) of the SPG. The iron core is magnetized by feeding excitation power to the electrical coil through slip rings (18) on the shaft (3). Thought the steady magnetic field does not pass through the non-magnetic stainless steel studs and also does not change with time, yet the stainless steel studs (7, 16) develop dc voltage that appears between the inner and outer rings (8, 11). When power is drawn between the above rings through fixed brushes on them, both the outgoing and incoming dc currents pass through the air gap (18), thereby canceling the magnetic effect due to the load current to a good extent. Similarly, the pair of stainless steel studs in common holes in the inner core carry dc currents in opposite directions and thus cancel their magnetic effects within the core. The above cancellation of magnetic effects due to load current in the outer air gap and the slots in the inner core leads to high efficiency of power production in the SPG.
Further description of the present invention is given now in the following specifications and the attached drawings.
Brief Description of the Drawings:
Figure 1 is the longitudinal section and end view of the shaft.
Figure 2 shows the transverse section, end view and plan of the inner rotor-2.
Figure 3 shows the transverse section, end view and plan of the inner rotor-1.
Figure 4 shows the section and end view of the non-magnetic stainless steel outer ring.
Figure 5 shows the end view and cross section of the non-magnetic stainless steel outer ring.
Figure 6 and Figure 7 show the non-magnetic stainless steel studs elevation and end views.
Figure 8 shows the end view and cross section of the end cover-1.
Figure 9 shows the end view and cross section of the end cover-2.
Figure 10 shows the cross section and end view of the brush assembly-1.
Figure 11 shows the cross section and end view of the brush assembly-2.
Figure 12 shows the transverse section of the assembled SPG.
Detailed Description of the Drawings:
Figure 1 shows the shaft of the SPG, which should preferably be made with non-magnetic material. The shaft has a central longitudinal hole to thread wires for the electromagnet. It also has eight numbers of radial tapped holes in which non-magnetic stainless steel studs are fixed. The shaft is stepped to accommodate the inner rotors as discussed below and also to accommodate bearings. Figure 2 and Figure 3 show details of the inner rotors that are made of high magnetic permeability mild steel and are shrunk fit on the aforesaid shaft. Inner rotor-2 in Figure 2 has provision of a slant hole for threading wires to the electric coil. Radial slots as shown in the end views of Figure 2 and Figure 3 are cut to accommodate four numbers of stainless steel studs in each inner rotor. The inner rotors mounted on the stainless steel shaft are so disposed with each other that four common holes are formed by eight numbers of slots to accommodate eight numbers of stainless steel studs, two studs falling in each hole. The assembly of inner rotors on the shaft is carried out after fixing the studs to the shaft. All the eight studs are so fixed that they do not touch the side of the slots in the inner rotors and make contacts only with the shaft to which they are tightly screwed. The studs after fixing to the shaft should be tack welded to the shaft for better electrical continuity between the pair of studs occupying a common hole.
The rotors butt at each other and their mating surfaces should be smoothly finished so as to avoid any air gap in between. Four numbers of through bolts of mild steel and with good magnetic permeability hold the two inner rotors together to avoid splitting of the inner rotors during high-speed rotation. After heat shrunk fitting on the shaft, the inner rotors may be tack welded to the shaft to provide rigid mechanical connection between the shaft and the inner rotors.
Figure 8 and Figure 9 show the details of two end covers that are made of high permeability mild steel and are threaded on to the inner rotors as shown in Figure 12. The end covers are mounted in such a way that an air gap is left in between them for the current collecting system (to be described below) to pass through the air gap. The cross section of the end covers at the air gap and throughout should be not less than the cross section of the iron core. After assembly, the end covers are locked with suitable mild steel bolts (6) joining them with the respective inner rotors so as to avoid unscrewing the end covers during rotation.
The electrical coil (15) wound with super enamel wire (SWG number 14 or 16) and of suitable size to exactly fit tightly in the recess created by the inner rotor and end cover rigidly mounted on the inner rotor when energized magnetizes the iron core and end covers, setting up in the core an axial magnetic field that has a return path through the end covers and passes through the air gap (28). The air gap should be just sufficient to accommodate the parts of the current collection system and yet large enough to avoid rubbing of the fixed brush assembly plate (10) with the rotating outer ring (11).
Current Collection System:
Figure 4 shows the stainless steel inner ring that is welded to the aforementioned stainless steel studs (four numbers) lying in one transverse plane and fixed to the shaft. Welded joints between the studs and the inner ring should provide good electrical conductivity. Copper-graphite brushes fixed to the brush-assembly plate-1 (Figure 10) slide on the stainless steel inner ring. The brush-assembly plate made of aluminum and of good electrical conductivity and passing through the air gap is fixed to the foundation plate (27) of preferably non-magnetic material and is kept electrically insulated from it through the insulating brush (24). Magnetic mild steel plate can also be used as a base plate.
The remaining four numbers of stainless steel studs, also lying in a transverse plane, are welded to the stainless steel out ring (Figure 5) that passes through the air gap and rotates with the rigid assembly of stainless steel studs, inner rotors, electrical coil, and end covers. The welded joints between stainless steel studs and the outer ring should provide good electrical conductivity. Fixed copper-graphite brushes in the outer brush-assembly-2 plate (Figure 11) slide on the rotating outer ring (11), Figure 12. The outer brush-assembly plate (13), Figure 12, is made of aluminum with good electrical conductivity and fixed on to the foundation plate and kept insulated from it.
Generation of Power in the SPG:
The generation of voltage in the SPG is discussed in the writer’s article, "Space Power Generation" in Explore! 3 (4): 62-65 (1992), and in other articles by the writer. In brief, the axial magnetic field B in the core during rotation of the inner rotors, electric coil and end covers, induces in the rotating studs dc voltage V1 with respect to the shaft. The voltage is given by:
V1 = 0.5 WBR2 10-4 (cgs units)
Where W is the angular rotational velocity, R is the radius of the inner rotor and B is the axial magnetic field strength in the inner rotor. In all the eight studs, V1 is induced. The brush-assembly plate through sliding brushes is in contact with the inner ring jointed to the studs and therefore also has the voltage V1 on it.
The outer ring passing through the air gap and being in rotation develops dc voltage V2 with respect to the shaft, which is given by,
V2 = B0W (R22-R12)10-4(cgs units)
Where B0 is the magnetic field in the air gap, W is the angular velocity and R2 and R1 are the outer and inner radii of the end covers. The dc voltage appearing on the rotating outer ring with respect to the shaft is given by V1 - V2. Thus the difference of dc potential between the two fixed brush-assemblies is V1 - (V1 - V2), that is, V2 which is the open circuit dc terminal voltage of the SPG.
When load is connected between the terminals of the SPG, both the outgoing current and the return current pass through the air gap and also through the common holes in the inner rotor. The magnetic fields created by oppositely flowing load currents cancel each other to a good extent as the studs are closely spaced in the slotted holes. The outer ring (with radial slots) within the air gap has its current in a direction opposite to the current flowing in the brush-assembly plate in its close vicinity, and therefore appreciable nullification of magnetic effects takes place within the air gap also. In a conventional homopolar generator, unlike in the SPG, there is relative motion between the conductor and the magnetic field. Also, there is no nullification of the magnetic fields due to the outgoing and return load current, and hence the efficiency of the SPG is very high compared to a conventional homopolar generator.
The dimensions in the drawings pertain to an existing SPG on which experiments have been conducted. However, if the diameter of the inner rotor is chosen to be nine inches and the electromagnet is excited to produce 1.6 Tesla in the iron core, the voltage developed between the terminals of the machine when it is run at 6000 rpm will be about six volts dc. Experiments show that the SPG produces steady dc current of about three kilo amperes at three volts dc with carbon-graphite brushes. The dc current produced at 6000 rpm will be about 6000 amps and therefore power produced by the SPG will be 36 kW at very high efficiency.
Material: mild steel; Qty: 1; Scale: 1:4; All dimensions are in mm.
Figure 12: Space Power Generator
(1) Coupling; (2) Screw; (3) Shaft; (4) Bearing; (5) Inner Rotor; (6) Hex Bolt-1; (7) SS Stud-1; (8) SS Inner Ring; (9) End Cover-1; (10) Brush Assembly-1; (11) SS Outer Ring; (12) Brush; (13) Brush Assembly-2; (14) End Cover-2; (15) Electric Coil; (16) SS Stud-2; (17) Inner Rotor-2; (18) Slip Ring; (19) Grub Screw; (20) Terminal Connection; (21) Insulating Ring; (22) Bearing Support; (23) Non-magnetic Support; (24) Insulating Bush; (25) Inner Washer; (26) Hex Bolt-2; (27) Foundation Plate; (28) Air Gap; (29) Brush.
Physics & Technology of the Phenomenon of Space Power Generation
(Reprinted from: The Journal of Borderland Research, May-August 1990, pp. 37-40)
Scientific debates on the nature of space (absolute vacuum) around the start of the 20th century took a general view that space serves to transmit fields (electromagnetic, gravitational) and, beyond that, it has no independent existence of its own as an entity that can generate energy in some form which enables it to be termed as a "real" physical entity. In other words, the generally accepted position then taken was that space is an empty extension of ""nothingness without any physical attributes in which fields are somehow transmitted at enormous speed. Many refutations to the above view both experimental and theoretical, and claims on the existence of ether, that is, space with physical attributes, could not provide an alternative theory so as to change the widely accepted position of the nonphysical nature of space.
A search for the most basic and universal source of fields of matter in general, and electron in particular, has led to the formulation (by the writer) of space vortex theory (SVT) in which physical; space has been postulated (Ref. 1), and it has been shown that the primary function of space is to generate cosmic matter. Thus as per SVT, quite contrary to the modern view of physics, mater apart from space has no independent existence.
Basics of Space Vortex Theory (SVT):
The absolute vacuum in SVT is a nonmaterial and mobile entity -- an incompressible, nonviscous, massless and continuous medium and its dynamical field equations or laws are formulated introducing the concept of velocity fields, that is, velocity of space points in a vortex of mobile space. An electron is postulated to be an irrotational vortex of space with a spherical central void of sub-microscopic radius of about 10-11 centimeter, within which the space with physical attributes develops discontinuity of energy field (Figure 1). The property of electric charge of electron and its electrostatic field can be shown to be the effect of rotation of space around the electron’s center. The mass property of electron is seen to be arising due to the creation of a fieldless spherical void (hole) at the electron’s center where space rotates at the limiting speed of light. New equations that quantify mass and charge of electrons and enable the computation of energy for its creation and annihilation are derived. It also follows from the theory that the electron is the only fundamental particle that can build all the other stable particles of matter of the universe.
The generation of mass of electron from the mass-less medium of space is the unique feature of SVT, as it does away with the normal trend of scientific convention that every conceivable entity must necessarily have mass if it has to be real, that is, if it has to possess energy. An irrotational vortex of space with maximum speed of rotation less than the speed of light will possess zero mass, and yet it will have electric charge due to velocity fields produced by space rotation. The creation of mass is essentially creation of void at electron’s center due to limiting speed of rotation and breakdown of space. The velocity field at a point in the neighborhood of electron determines the electric potential there. The breakdown of space at electron’s center gravitationally energizes the whole universe creating gravity field and gravity potential. The decrease in gravity potential at a space point due to oscillation/movement of electron/matter creates electromagnetic field (light) at that point. When an electron is annihilated, it is decaying gravity potential at each point in space that is seen as light.
The property of zero viscosity and mobility of space up to the speed of light in combination with the central void of electron, results in inertia property of electron in its motion. The inertia property for all matter also arises due to the above effect since the electrons are the fundamental particles of all stable particles of matter.
Fundamental Equations on Electron’s Charge & Mass:
Following fundamental equations derived from the void-vortex structure of the electron (Ref. 1) are relevant to the computation of rotational charge energy produced due to rotation of space in the interatomic region of a rotating electromagnet as shown in Figure 2.
Refer to Figure 1, which shows spin of space at void-space interface. At the elemental surface, tangential velocity of space is:
which increases to its limiting value c at the diametrical section of the interface. The basic definitions for electron's charge, rest-mass and dielectric constant for vacuum are:
(1) qe = (pi /4)(4pi re2c)
qe is the electron's charge
re is the radium of spherical void
c is the light speed in vacuum.
Hence, it follows that the dimensions of qe are:
[qe] = L3/T
(2) me = (4pi/3)rec
where me is the electron's rest mass.
Hence, it follows that the dimensions for mass me are:
[me] = L4/T
Dielectric constant for vacuum Eo is given by
(3) Eo = pi/2c
Dimensions for Eoare:
[Eo ] = T/L
Substituting in Eq. (1) experimentally determined value, qe = 4.8 x 10-10 CGSE units, and supposing the value of void radius re = 10-11 cm,
(4) cm3/s = (16) CGSE.
Generation of Space Power:
As shown in Figure 1, for computation of electron's charge at the interface, the product of speed of spinning space at the elemental surface and its area dA is taken. This indicates that for all values of VF varying from zero to c, charge is produced. Therefore rotation of cylindrical surface A of an iron core (Figure 2) of an electromagnet will create in its interatomic space rotational charge (qr), given by similar relationship as for electronic charge. Neglecting the area occupied by atomic nuclei and orbital electrons at surface A,
(5) qr = space surface x rotational speed = (2pi rL)(2pi rN) = 4pi2r2LN
[pi = 3.141... of course]
Converting qr to CGSE units, from (4) and (5),
qr = 64 pi2r2LN
Number of electrons (Ne) equivalent to qr will be:
(6) Ne = 64pi2r2LN/qe
Energy in the electrostatic field of Ne electrons is computed as below:
Electrostatic energy (U) of a point-charge as per computational physics is given by:
(7) U = [qe2/2(4 pi Eo)][1/r]0ºº
where r, the radial distance from the charge center, varies from zero to infinity. With void-center of electron, the minimum value of r is taken as re (and not zero) since void is a fieldless zone (The present difficulty in physics of infinite quantity of energy in the field of a point-charge is avoided with void-center structure of electron).
Substituting the value of Eo from (3) in (7) and from (1) expressing qe in terms of re and c,
U = (pi /4)2 (4pi re2c)2/2(4pi2/2c)re = (3pi/16)(4pi re3c/3)c2
from which (2) becomes
(8) U = (3pi /16)mec2
Net energy produced from rotational charge from (6) and (8),
(9) Net energy = (3pi3 /4qe)(mec2)r2LN
Substituting the values, qe = 4.8 x 10-10 CGSE units, me = 9 x 10-28 gram, c = 3 x 1010 cm/sec in (9),
(10) Net energy = (1.98)pi r2LN 10-5 kW second.
The electric charge energy developed in any rotating body due to space rotation within the body is given to (10). If the body in rotation is an electrical conductor (iron, copper) then the orbital electrons of the atoms are liberated and will move under the action of a magnetic field to form electrical polarities (Ref. 2).
The above structure of the electron is substantiated through some recent experiments on electromagnetic induction. These experiments have brought to light a new phenomenon in which electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor even if there is no relative motion between the conductor and the magnetic field which is unlike the principle behind the operation of modern electrical generators for which relative motion between the conductor and the magnetic field is a must. Further, the electrical power generation in the newly discovered phenomenon does not fully reflect in a proportionate increase of the input power, thereby giving an efficiency of more than unity, and revealing a new vital fact that absolute vacuum in the interatomic space of matter can generate electrical charge and power when it is set in a dynamic state. An experiment somewhat similar to above was done by Michael Faraday in the year 1830. He discovered the above phenomenon as regards the production of electromotive force even when the relative motion between the magnetic field and the conductor was zero. He, however, does not appear to have made measurements on the incremental power ratio from such a device. The writer first learned of this effect from Bruce DePalma’s letters (Ref. 5) to him (1978-79). DePalma made an extensive study of this effect and named it as N-effect. The experimental machines he built, he termed as N-generators.
A series of tests on this unique phenomenon of space power generation have been carried out as outlined briefly in References 2, 3, and 4. The space power generator (SPG) shown in Figure 3has produced efficiency of electrical power generation to more than 250%, and precise test results on other models show that higher efficiencies for output currents in kiloamperes are possible.
Building of space power generators of about 100 kW size should be possible to be achieved with conventional technological methods in the near future.
In addition to the discovery of a novel technology for power generation, the following crucial changes in the scientific and philosophical outlook that would be brought about with the new phenomenon of space power generation are:
1) The fundamental state of universal energy is eternally latent in the dynamic space of the universe.
2) The cosmic mater is generated from the energy of space in repeated cycles of creation and annihilation.
3) Space is not an empty extension but rather the most fundamental entity which alone gives reality to the cosmic world.
The present industrial culture demands a continually increasing growth of electrical power. Since the limited resources of thermal, hydroelectrical and nuclear power cannot last for centuries, the need that has now become vital is to discover a power source which is independent of all material resources, so that a regulated generation of power from the present known technologies is supplemented to a good extent from this eternal source.
A technological breakthrough, which will enable generation of energy directly from space, is in the offing. Nature has, however, already achieved this conversion from space energy to matter in the generation of the cosmic matter of the universe (Ref. 3).
1) Paramahansa Tewari: Beyond Matter; 1984, Print Well Publications, Aligarh, India.
2) P. Tewari: Magnets In Your Future 1(8), August 1986; P.O. Box 580, Temecula, CA 92390.
3) P. Tewari: Magnets In Your Future 2(12), December 1987.
4) P. Tewari:"Violation of Law of Conservation of Charge in Space Power Generation Phenomenon"; The Journal of Borderland Research 55(5), September-October 1989.
5) Bruce DePalma, Santa Barbara, California USA.
Interaction of Electron & Magnetic Field in Space Power Generation Phenomenon
The newly discovered phenomenon of Space Power Generation as discussed in "Generation of Electrical Power from Absolute Vacuum by High Speed Rotation of Conducting Magnetic Cylinder" (Ref. 1) has the following distinctive features that pinpoint the fact that absolute vacuum in dynamic state is the fundamental state of positive energy.
The electrical output power from the Space Power Generator (SPG) shown in Figure 1b and Figure 1c does not reflect in the proportionate increase of the electrical input to the drive motor of for the SPG, while the excitation power to the electromagnet remains substantially constant when the machine is run from no-load to the loaded condition.
(1) Space Power Generator (mild steel rotors, 8.125" O.D., 3.5" long each, 5.5" Rotor I.D.); (2) Iron core of Faraday Motor; (3) Disc Rotor (Faraday Motor); (4) Electromagnet (Faraday Motor); (6) Brush gear of SPG; (7) Bronze shaft, 42 mm; (8) Bearing; (9) Slip rings; (10) Drive motor; (11) Drive belts; (12) Mercury pot for current collection system.
Figure 1c: Space Power Generator ~
Drive motor input: Wm = 950 W; Electromagnet input: Ws = 1400 W; No load voltage: 649 mV @ 2000 rpm; Loaded (partial loading w/ limited number of brushes) drive motor input: Wm + 197 W; Electromagnet input: constant @ Ws; DC current from SPG: 532 A; DC voltage from SPG: 601 mV; I2R input of SPG: 345 W; Drop in output dc voltage on load: 48 mV; Internal resistance of SPG: 91 microohm; Incremental power ratio: 345/197 = 1.75;
Interaction of electrons that constitute the electrical output current with the magnetic field in the rotating iron rotor of the SPG is such that the effect described above takes place.
The mechanism of generation of continuous electrical power in the inter-atomic space (absolute vacuum) of the iron rotor was analyzed in the paper referred to above with the use of the fundamental equations of Space Vortex Theory which postulate non-viscous nature of space (Figure 1a). Further tests on a SPG have revealed that it is the rotation of space within the rotor along with the source of magnetic field in it which shows a "reduced anti-torque" or "dragless" feature unlike the conventional generators. The paper discusses the fundamental physics of interaction of electrons with the magnetic field with the void vortex structure (Ref. 2) of electron as given in SVT (Figure 1a), and some crucial experimental results that describe the unique behavior of the machines in space power generation phenomenon.
Generation of Magnetic Field by Electron’s Motion Relative to Space:
In Figure 2, a vortex ring is shown to have a preferred direction of rotation (Ref. 3) due to circulation around the vortex lines as shown in Figure 2b. If the circulation around the top of the ring (Figure 2c) is extended to the bottom of the ring, there will be decrease of VF at D, and increase at C. Similarly, if the circulation from the bottom of the ring (Figure 2d) is extended to the top of the ring, VF will decrease at A, and increase at B. The vortex ring therefore moves along the direction shown with increased VF at B and C with its clockwise spin when viewed along the direction of its motion. On similar reasoning it is concluded that the electron vortex (Figure 3a) will have a specific direction of motion along the positive direction of angular momentum vector.
The magnetic effect is discussed (Ref. 2) and shown to be a reaction from space against the change in the magnitude of VF in the vortex of the electron when it is set in motion relative to space. The clockwise spin of VF in the direction of electron produces anti-clockwise concentric circles of magnetic field in an electron moving relative to space as shown in Figure 3a.Magnetic Coupling Between the Two Volumes of Space Within & Outside the Rotor:
In Figure 4, the interatomic space within the rotor of the SPG is shown under rotation. Since the electromagnets are mounted rigidly with the rotor, the magnet field lines (Figure 4b) shown confined within the rotor, also rotate with the rotor’s space, there being no relative motion between B and the rotor’s space. The rotation of the rotor produces an irrotational vortex and VF within the rotor. The VF of the irrotational vortex interacts with the atomic vortexes and releases conduction electrons from the iron atoms (Ref. 1). A free electron is imparted velocity v along a VF vector (Figure 4a) and thus moving relative to the rotor’s space produce magnetic field Be as shown in Figure 3a. The interaction of B and Be (Figure 3b) deflects the released electrons towards the center (Figure 4a) under a radial force (B qe v) directing a dc voltage between the center and the periphery of the rotor.
The load current drawn from the rotor sets up a magnetic field within the rotor body due to its electron (
) that interacts with B. The force produced on each electron in the current results in a reaction on B and the source of B, i.e., the electromagnets that are rotating with the rotor’s space relative to which B is stationary. The reaction from the electrons of the current is thus taken by the rotating space of the rotor, and kept confined within it without transmission to the external static space.
In Figure 4c, the electromagnets are separately mounted due to which B has relative motion with respect to the rotor’s space. The external space outside the rotor is now coupled through the magnetic field B with the rotor’s rotating space. The force experienced by the electrons of the current reacts on B, and on the external space in which the source of B is located. There is a force now through B on the electrons in the rotor’s rotating space in a direction opposite to the rotation and thereby creating an "anti-torque" or "drag" in direct proportion to the output power.
The "dragless" feature of the SPG is thus seen to be due to the electromagnet’s rotation with the rotor.
Tests on SPG:
The SPG shown in Figure 1b and Figure 1c was tested for incremental power ratio. Tests were taken at low speed of 2000 rpm since the brushes caused vibration at higher speeds giving improper contacts. The voltage buildup was however checked at the higher speed of 4325 rpm, when 1440 mV was observed between the inner rotor surface and the shaft. The dc current input to the electromagnets mounted in the rotor remained constant from the no-load to the loaded condition of the SPG. The rise in the ac input power to the drive motor, from the no-load input and corresponding to the various dc electrical outputs was recorded.
On the same shaft as the SPG, a Faraday disc motor (FM) was mounted with stationary electromagnets (Figure 1b). As the output dc current from the SPG passed through the disc of the FM, due to the torque developed the rise in the ac input power to the drive motor was seen to reduce proportionately. The incremental power ratio was higher (about 7.26) with the FM mounted with the SPG, than the results obtained with the SPG alone (about 1.75 to 2.5).
For all the above tests, an airgap in the outer rotor flux path of the SPG was maintained. An interesting phenomenon was noticed in which the dc voltage between the outer rotor surface and the shaft reduced to zero when the airgap was closed and an electrical continuity existed between the outer two halves of the rotor surfaces. The following is the likely explanation:
Consider the voltage buildup at the two halves of the outer rotor surface A in Figure 1c. The electrons that become free due to rotation of the rotor are pushed radially out due to the interaction with the magnetic field from the surfaces A’ towards the surfaces A, thus making A negative relative to A’ and also B (The electrons are pushed radially down from B towards the shaft). Due to the airgap in the outer rotor, the electrons accumulated at surfaces A do not find return paths to A’, and therefore voltages are maintained there. If the two halves of the outer rotors are brought together by eliminating the airgap, the electrons at either o the surfaces A will find return paths to A’ through the other half f the outer rotor. The following pattern of flow of electrons will be established:
1. Conduction electrons from surface A from either half of the rotor will flow through the other half to surfaces A’.
2. Free electrons from surfaces A’ will travel towards surfaces A due to magnetic interaction.
Since the above two modes of electron flow are opposite in direction, the voltage buildup at the surfaces A cannot take place. It can similarly be shown that the electrons pushed towards the shaft from the surface B, will find return paths through the outer rotor surfaces A, thereby preventing any voltage buildup at B. The voltage between A and the shaft will be the difference of the voltages between B and shaft, and A and B. In the absence of voltage buildup at A and B, as discussed above, the voltage between A and the shaft will reduce to zero as experimentally observed.
Space Power Perpetual Machine:
It should be possible to feed the electrical power generated in the inner core of the SPG through liquid metal contact brushes and rotating copper rings mounted on either half of the outer rotor of the SPG (Figure 5) and into the outer rotor surfaces and develop torque in a Space Power Perpetual Machine (SPPM). The fixed electromagnets provide magnetic field for motor action that produces torque in the direction of rotation of the SPPM. The reduced airgap will decrease the power requirement to the electromagnets appreciably. Also, the penetration of the non-magnetic copper rods into the outer iron flux return paths and electrically insulated from it, should reduce drag on N-generators without the modification suggested above. The tests on SPPM are yet to be taken.
The explanation to the phenomenon of space power generation in which there are positive experimental proofs of energy being produced from the absolute vacuum (space) cannot be given by the current laws of physics because it does not recognize that rotation of vacuum is a real process that can generate energy.
The interaction of electron and magnetic field discussed above as per the principles of SVT though exceedin the present boundary of physics yet provides explanations to the experimental findings.
1) Paramahansa Tewari: "Generation of Electrical Power from Absolute Vacuum by High Speed Rotation of Conducting Magnetic Cylinder"; Magnets in Your Future 1(8), August 1986.
2) Paramahansa Tewari: Beyond Matter; 1984, Printwell Publications, Aligarh, India.
3) The Feynman Lectures on Physics, vol 2: 40; Addison-Wesley Publishing Co, Inc.
The exchange of technical Letters with Mr Bruce DePalma, DePalma Energy Corp., Santa Barbara CA, has very much helped in the development of the SPPM from the basic concepts of the N-generator.
About the Author:
Paramahansa Tewari was born on January 6, 1937. He received B. Sci. Electrical Engineering degree from Banaras Engineering College, Banaras Hindu University, India, in 1958.
After working initially in Bhilai Steel Project on electrical installations, he joined Department of Atomic Energy and worked at Plutonium Plant on electrical works. For one year he was deputed to Douglas Point Nuclear generating Station (1964-65) for training in field engineering and installation of electrical equipment in Nuclear Power Projects. He worked at Erection Superintendent (Electrical) at Rajastan Atomic Power Project, Deputy Chief Engineer at Narora Atomic Power Project, Chief of Transmission in National Thermal power Corp., India, and presently is Head of Quality Assurance, 500 Mwe Group, Nuclear Power Board, Dept. of Atomic Energy.
He has authored works on electron structure with space dynamics.
For the presentation of a working model of Space Power Generator in an International Congress of Gravity Field Energy held at Hanover, Germany in March 1987, and lecture on the new principles of Space Vortex Theory, he was awarded First Prize.
Electromagnetic Induction of Space Substratum
(Reprinted from Journal of Borderland Research, Jan-Feb. 1992, p. 16)
A cylindrical electromagnet, rotated on its axis, develops dc voltage between the axis and the periphery though there is no relative motion between the magnetic field in the core parallel to the axis and the iron conductor of the core. Refer to Figure 1. Faraday (Ref. 1) had discovered this effect by rotating together a permanent magnet and a copper disc integral with it. Bruce DePalma (Ref. 2) while carrying out the experiments on rotation of magnets independently discovered this phenomenon and named it "N-Effect". Development of the N-generator by DePalma, homopolar generator by Adam Trombley (Ref. 3) and Space Power Generator (SPG) by the writer operating at "overunity" efficiencies and in violation of the "Law of Conservation of Energy" in its existing form is based on this new system of rotating assembly of magnet and disc conductor, in which the magnetic field and the conductor have zero relative motion. It gets evident that there are more basic aspects to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction than what has so far been recognized.
In , a conductor C is placed transverse to a magnetic field B from a magnet M. electromotive force (emf) is generated in C if it is moved as shown in the figure. Also if C is kept at rest and M is moved, emf is generated in C. In another case, if current is changed in a nearby conductor C’, the changing magnetic flux of C’ will induce an emf in C. In the above cases, there is either relative motion between C and B, and B thus cuts the conductor or there is a change in the magnetic field B’ of the nearby circuit conductor C’ and the changing field B’ interacts with C to produce emf. In SPG also the magnetic field is in contact with the rotating iron core conductor and emf is produced without relative motion between the conductor and the magnetic field. The common feature in all the above cases is that for the generation of emf in a conductor, interaction with the conductor of either steady magnetic field or changing magnetic field is essential.
An experiment with rotating electromagnet described below has, however, shown that emf can be induced within a rotating conductor even when it has no direct interaction with steady or changing magnetic field. With this experiment, a conclusive proof is had that the absolute vacuum (space) is the fundamental substratum of reality that can undergo magnetic induction and transmit the emf induced in it to the conductor rotating relative to it.
Refer to Figure 1. The magnetic circuit of a rotating electromagnet completes its path through static iron limbs on either side and the base. In the four slots cut in the cylindrical iron core, provision is made for non-magnetic stainless steel (ss) rods that are welded with the non-magnetic ss ring surrounding the core. The magnetic field produce by the dc current in the coil, which is integral with the core and rotates with it, does not pass through either the four slots or the rods mounted within the slots. When the assembly is rotated, the magnetic field remains confined to the core, air gaps on either side of the core, and the base. Measurements show however that the ss ring develops the same dc voltage as the cylindrical core’s surface on its periphery (although the ss ring and the rods are neither in contact with the periphery of the core nor have magnetic fields in them). Even when four thin slots are cut in the ss ring making the rods independent, the same voltage is induced in the ring. It is inferred that the zone in which voltage is induced in the rods is within the slots and since the magnetic field in the core surrounding the slots is a steady field due to dc current in the electromagnet’s coil, electromagnetic induction as conventionally understood cannot induce emf in the rods. The space surrounding the rods in the slots has to be a real medium that has to somehow generate emf in itself so as to transmit the same to the rods.
"Static" & "Dynamic" Space Substratum:
The effect of generation of emf in the above experiment can be explained by introducing "static" and "dynamic" aspects of space substratum as discussed elsewhere in the writer’s works (Ref. 4). The interatomic space within the iron core along with the "space vortices" that constitute the atoms of the iron core, the ss ring and the rods form one system of dynamic space that rotates relative to the static space. Within the iron core, however, the rotating space is super-imposed on the stationary space, and, therefore, the magnetic field there is common to both the rotating as well as the stationary spaces. As the space of the rotating iron due to rotation shifts along with its magnetic field, it leaves behind within the slots static space with magnetic field falling to zero there. This causes induction effect in the static space of the slots. The ss rods moving through the stationary space within the slots pick up the emf induced there and are thus raised to the same potential as the periphery of the core. If the space medium within the slots around the ss rods is considered an "emptiness", in the absence of any magnetic field there, no electromagnetic induction is possible and hence the ss ring cannot develop emf with steady magnetic field in the core contrary to experimental evidence.
The following conclusions are drawn from the above experiment:
A rotating electromagnet carried with it during rotation the magnetic field in interatomic space of the core produced due to the coil integrally mounted on the core of the electromagnet (as the source of the magnetic field [coil] rotates, the field also rotates with the source).
The steady magnetic field in the iron core in its transverse motion of rotation produces emf in the neighboring space (within the slots) due to electromagnetic induction of space caused when the magnetic field in the core shifts relative to the stationary space substratum in the slots.
The radial flow of load current in the electromagnet’s iron core and the magnetic field in the core transverse to this current, interact within the rotating pace system of the core which is independent of the external stationary space system. The resultant force between the current and the magnetic field is thus contained within the rotating space system and does not produce torque opposite to that of the prime mover that rotates the electromagnet.
References:1) Martin, Thomas (ed.): Faraday’s Diary; 1932, Bell.
2) DePalma, Bruce: "On the Possibility of Extraction of Electrical energy Directly from Space"
3) Trombley, Adam D., Director of Research & Development, Zero Point Technologies,Inc., P.O. Box 1031, Evergreen, CO 80439
4) Tewari, Paramahansa: Beyond Matter; 1984, Print Well Publications, Alighar, India.
5) Tewari, P.: "Generation of Electrical Power from Absolute Vacuum by High Speed Rotation of Conducting Magnetic Cylinder"; Magnets in Your Future 1(8), August 1986.
6) Tewari, P.: "Violation of Conservation of Charge in Space Power Generation Phenomenon"; The Journal of Borderland Research, vol.55 (5), Sept.-Oct. 1989.
7) Tewari, P.: "Detection of Stationary & Dynamic Space Substratum"; Raum & Zeit, USA, 2 (1), 1990.
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