Caveat : Sociopathic inventor's abuse of a
See also : Ozone
Oxygen Therapy - The Empire Strikes
Basil Wainwright has categorically invented a process to purify
whole donor blood in the bag, and his invention of polyatomic
aphaeresis ozone technology has created the most significant
breakthrough in the treatment of AIDS and degenerative diseases
found anywhere in the world to date. -- Richard Bernhard (
Polyatomic Apheresis Inc. )
GN = Gary Null // SAT = Sue Ann Taylor// BW = Basil
GN: This program is Natural Living, and I'm Gary Null of WBAI, a
public-supported radio station.
Tonight I'll be talking to Sue Ann Taylor, an investigative
journalist, and Basil Wainwright, a scientist and inventor of a
particular ozone machine. Why is he in the Metropolitan Correction
Center in Miami—the jail? Why hasn't he had a trial in three
years? Why does the government not want his story to get out? More
on that later.
Is HIV the cause of AIDS?
HIV has never been found in any scientific studies anywhere in the
world to be the sole cause of AIDS. No one can prove it. It is
speculation. It is political and economic.
The man who said in 1982 that HIV was the probable cause of AIDS
(instantly it became dogma that it was)—did he also inform the
public he was the primary beneficiary of a test for HIV, that he
owns the patent and that millions of dollars have gone to him and
his associates? No.
Did the press vigorously explore all the allegations of fraud and
The alternative press did.
We're the ones that brought you that information. They tell you
don't challenge orthodoxy. We challenge you not to believe that
but rather to believe the experience of those who are the ultimate
authorities: the patients who are alive and well, having had the
opportunity to intelligently review the best of both and see what
works, and that's what we bring you.
You've heard previously from patients successfully treated using
non-toxic therapies, you've heard from the physicians who've
treated them. Now today, in this segment, Sue Ann Taylor,
investigative journalist, welcome to our program.
GN: Sue Ann, you recently returned from the Philippines where you
observed and recorded the effects of ozone treatment and a
polyatomic aphaeresis therapy on a group of HIV-positive and AIDS
patients. Would you give us the background of this and why it is
so important that the people hear this story?
SAT: Well, I was researching for a documentary that I had been
working on, called Living Proof—People Walking Away From AIDS
Healthy, because I was finding more and more evidence that there
were things that were in fact working for some AIDS cases and/or
HIV-positive cases. In doing that research I came upon ozone
therapy, and I also came upon all the controversy that surrounds
it. So when I was offered the opportunity to actually watch a
trial happen first hand, in the Philippines, I jumped at the
I went to the Philippines and I was stunned with what I saw,
because I was expecting the entire thing to take place in a sort
of wing of a hospital, or something that looked a little bit more
like what I expected medicine to look like. It was actually a
clinic that was set up rather ad hoc to provide space to do
justice to this trial, so I started out a little on the skeptical
side, not knowing what I was getting into.
There were nineteen HIV-positive people there, five of whom had
full-blown AIDS. Over the course of about three weeks I watched
the patients, or participants as they preferred to be called—six
of whom were in pretty bad shape—watched them go through some
pretty remarkable transformations and I saw it happen before my
very own eyes. There's no amount of journalists or medical people
who can tell me that what I saw I didn't see. I saw people who
were unable to walk, be able to walk again. I saw people who were
very, very ill just get considerably better and all of the
treatment was cut short by a raid by the government.
The Philippine government came in and shut down the entire
operation, after only about one-third of the prescribed amount of
treatment had been accomplished. It was a trial, so remember there
wasn't an absolute number on how much treatment they were going to
need—that was part of what they were there to establish—but
one-third of what they were expecting would be close to the magic
number of hours on the machine, had been accomplished, and in that
period of time remarkable reversals in these people's conditions
GN: Alright, describe the clinic.
SAT: The [Cebu] clinic itself was an upscale home in the
Philippines. An upscale home in the Philippines looks kind of like
an upscale home in America. It was a very large home, two storey,
fairly large lot, and behind the home they had built grass huts,
but it wasn't as crude as that makes it sound; it really had a
vacation resort feel to it. It was not really unacceptable—and by
Philippines standards it was just fine. I had an opportunity to go
to one of the Philippines hospitals, and the cleanliness within
the clinic beat the cleanliness of the Philippines hospitals that
All the Filipino staff were excellent—I would pit their training
against any training of any nursing staff anywhere in the world.
But some of the things we take for granted, like refrigeration and
insect control, they just have really come to learn to live
without those things. The clinic was, by our own standards, crude,
but it was, you know, acceptable also. The materials were all new;
it's just, again, it didn't meet my preliminary expectations.
GN: Who was working there?
SAT: There was a group from Australia—the clinic was actually
owned by a couple named Bob and Rosanna Graham. The second group
was PAI, the polyatomic aphaeresis unit group, and all they did
was supply the equipment and people to train the Philippine staff
to use the equipment; and the third group was the Philippine staff
which consisted of two Philippine doctors and eleven nurses.
GN: And who were the patients?
SAT: The patients were twenty Australians, nineteen with HIV, one
with multiple cancers.
GN: Is it illegal to enter the Philippines if you are an
SAT: My understanding is that it is illegal to go in HIV-positive,
but Immigration does not question you; there is no testing and I
don't know that the patients realized that it was illegal.
GN: Could you tell us of some the success stories of the patients?
SAT: The most dramatic success story was a man named Paul. Paul is
42 years old, he had been HIV-positive since 1984, has full-blown
AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma. The lesions, the Kaposi's sarcoma
lesions on the bottom of his feet, were so great when he left for
the Philippines that he couldn't walk. He was in slippers for over
a year. He could not wear shoes. He gingerly walked on the
outsides of his feet and it was very difficult for him to get
around at all.
After eleven hours of treatment on the machine, Paul's lesions
went away. He was able to wear leather shoes and, most importantly
to Paul, he was off morphine for the first time in four years.
Prior to his going to the Philippines, the cancer hospital had
told him that he had reached the maximum amount of radiation that
he could receive safely, and he would have to simply continue to
increase his morphine to deal with his increasing pain.
Paul believed that he had experienced just miraculous treatment,
that in eleven hours of that treatment the lesions on his feet
went away and he could wear shoes and walk normally again.
GN: Describe what the treatment consisted of.
SAT: The polyatomic aphaeresis looks like the following: a patient
sits in a chair that looks a little like a dentist's chair. It's a
comfortable chair. There are intravenous needles inserted in both
of their arms, the blood coming out of the left arm is pulled
through a pump that is in synch with the heart rate, and a circuit
of blood is created between the left arm coming out and the right
arm coming in. The blood goes through a series of tubes, goes down
through a cascade tube where it is met with ozone under pressure,
and at that point that's where the viral kill happens.
The blood continues down through an escape tube, through a filter,
back into their right arm. What you see visually is the blood
exiting the left arm is a very black color; it is black. It goes
down through this cascade tube, which is a wide bore cascade tube,
about an inch in diameter, and it goes back into the arm, the
right arm, a bright cherry-red color. It comes out looking
alarmingly different—this is with the HIV patients—alarmingly
different from what you would expect.
Now, the first patient I saw on the machine was a person without
HIV. She was a normal prison who had an infected foot, and her
blood came out looking like yours and mine would, and went back in
only slightly differently than it came out; so what I witnessed
was that the HIV patients' blood was considerably blacker than a
normal person's and went back considerably lighter. That's, in a
nutshell, what it is.
GN: Alright, now, what other parts of the therapy were included
with this ozone treatment, and how does this ozone treatment
differ from, let's say, one which would be done in New York where
you pull out about, oh, a half pint of blood, ozonate it and put
it back in the arm over a fifteen-to twenty-minute period?
SAT: I've never witnessed any of the other treatments that you're
talking about. The only two ozone treatments that I've seen
actually operate are the polyatomic aphaeresis and, using the same
equipment, a process called rectal insufflation where the ozone
gas is put in through a catheter into the rectum, which becomes an
ozone enema, so to speak. Those two were used at the clinic and in
conjunction with one another. Some of the participants in the
study had experienced the treatment that you are talking about and
had some success with it. What they believe from their own
experience, what they told me, is that it was the difference
between a Volkswagen and a Rolls Royce, from what they felt with
the treatment, you're talking about getting in New York versus
what they got in the Philippines.
GN: So, it was far more productive in the Philippines?
GN: Now, what happened to these twenty patients? Where are they at
now and have there been any additional protocols for these people
SAT: The turning point of everything was on March 19. The youngest
participant was a 23-year-old woman named Jodi, and she had
full-blown AIDS. It was a real tragedy because she really kind of
represented all of our daughters, and her courage was phenomenal.
She died in the clinic and that's when things started to tumble
She died from a series of complications. I'm not a medical expert
but I believe she received two insufflations too close together
and her body had trouble coping with the amount of ozone that she
had taken in. She also received those against doctor's orders, so
I guess it would have to be chalked up to human error rather than
anything to do with the equipment. She received the ozone via the
GN: You mean the Philippine doctors had suggested she not take
SAT: Actually, it was the American doctor, the expert on the
ozone, who had said this girl shouldn't have another until she
recovers a little bit. She had remarkable success on the
equipment, though. When I first arrived I was afraid Jodi was not
going to make it until the equipment arrived. There were all kinds
of customs hang-ups that prevented the equipment from getting into
the country and getting set up on time. So the patients arrived
ahead of the equipment, which was a real management error because
it just added too much stress to the patients.
GN: By the way, who raided the clinic?
SAT: It was raided by the Department of Immigration.
GN: Was there any evidence the FDA had been involved in the raid?
SAT: There wasn't any evidence that the FDA had been involved; but
what I was told was that the story really got underway when
Australia's version of A Current Affair did a scathing story on
the clinic and what the patients were about to experience, just as
they were getting on the plane. I was told by another journalist
in Australia whom I trust, that ACA is the one who went in to the
Department of Immigration and tipped them off. I was also told
that the producers were directed by their upper management to do a
'chuck job' on the ozone therapy. And no matter what they were
told, no matter how much positive information they were given, it
never aired; and I watched this happen time after time.
GN: So, in other words, there was a gross bias in the media, from
your interpretation, to prevent positive stories about the success
of ozone from getting back to the general population?
SAT: It's not even a question of interpretation. I watched it
happen; I watched the participants give interviews; I gave
interviews myself. We would turn on the TV and we would be shocked
at what actually would show up. Paul, whom I was telling you
about, would tell his entire story; he would show his feet, all of
those things; and he made a comment in one of the television
interviews where he said,
"After I got going I could just feel it in my heart that this was
That little snippet is the only thing that they would use, and
then they would cut to the doctor saying, "Well, you know, there's
a certain amount of mind over matter," and all that kind of stuff.
So they were completely dismissing the science of it and trying to
make it sound like their improvements were all in their own minds;
but fifteen patients had improved T-cell counts, one as high as a
GN: I would like to shift gears, now, and bring in another
individual to share a different perspective on this, and one that
we haven't talked about in the past. Basil Wainwright, welcome to
BW: Thank you very much, Gary. I must congratulate you on running
a super program, and a very courageous one too.
GN: Basil, you are now incarcerated in Florida?
BW: That's right, so if any of your listeners hear any background
effects, I must apologize for that. I am currently incarcerated
down here in Miami.
GN: From what I understand, you are a scientist and you are the
inventor of this polyatomic machine, this ozone machine, and that
you have been incarcerated without trial for three years. Is that
BW: Yes, I'm now well into my third year without trial and some
seven violations of my basic human rights.
GN: What are those violations?
BW: Well, there's the 4th amendment and the 5th amendment, the 6th
amendment has been violated, and the 8th, and 14th. So . . .
GN: What has happened to your attorney filing proper motions to
get a fair and speedy trial? That's one of the constitutional
provisions for people who are incarcerated. I haven't heard of
people waiting three years except this particular political
detainee who was here in New York, the IRA supporter who was held
for some seven years.
BW: That is absolutely right. Well, it all started that—really, I
suppose I should give you and your listeners a brief synopsis. I
was working with Dr. Viebahn in Germany and I was brought into
this project along with Medizone, and then got very much involved
in the process. And I was somewhat intrigued to find that nobody
had really done any specific testing i.e., looking at the
cytotoxic levels or, that is, the concentration of ozone, looking
at the specific atomic structures of that, and also the contacting
time; so there were an awful lot of areas that particularly
interested me. I worked with the University of Medicine and
Dentistry and also the Mt. Sinai Hospital with Dr. Weinburg and
with Dr. Michael Carpendale, and started to get very, very
involved in the course.
It was very evident there were some phenomenal results being seen
in the AIDS area and I started to look at it more in-depth. There
were sever-al controversies going on as to whether it was a
function of free radical reaction or oxidation—but of course both
of those functions occur extensively—and also this ionization; and
I wanted to determine the specific parameters of that, because
when people refer to ozone you might just as well refer to a
vehicle being involved in a collision because you're not really
defining the atomic structure of ozone which can be multifold.
There can be many aggregate combinations of molecules which can
have very specifically different responses, and I wanted to
GN: Since 1985 you have been working with some German doctors
including Dr. Viebahn that you talked about. Now, you had a way of
deter-mining that the ozone being used back then was not as
effective as the way you could create a better ozone; they were
using O2 but you also saw O3 and O4.
GN: Now tell us about what you found with what you created
concerning viral inactivation.
BW: Well, of course, I think it's very important for your
listeners to know that the reason scientists refer to
retroviruses' inactivation as opposed to being killed is because
normal micro-organisms have metabolic mechanisms, whereas a
retrovirus could almost be considered a piece of genet-ic material
drifting around in the bloodstream. And so, it's rather difficult
to kill a non-living thing, hence scientists refer to
inactivation. We looked at these various techniques and
procedures, including the study which we did with Biotest in
We determined that the German process worked but wouldn't be
dramatically effective because they were not treating high enough
volumes of blood. We wanted to see that once some-one had been
taken back to HIV negative using polyatomic oxygen or ozone, they
indeed remained negative. I think there is only one case that
actually went back to positive so that was rather unique because
all the doctors were saying, Okay, so what? You get somebody to
negative, but in a couple of months' time they're going to go back
Well, that was proven not to be the case, which I think even
surprised the Germans. And it might well be that the immune system
kicks back in, and when we say negative we're looking at nucleic
acid response or PCR work to deter-mine that; but certainly the
patients were not going back to positive—that was very
So we thought, okay, if these patients are going to use
auto-hemotherapy which you referred to earlier, Gary, where you
take out half a pint of blood, treat it with ozone, and then
re-infuse it back into the patient, that was taking typically
eleven months, of course combined with a very rigid nutritional
control as well. But using that process it was very evident that
it's like chipping away at a mountain with an ice pick when you're
looking at the view of this pandemic facing mankind; and it became
very apparent in 1987 that the best way to go was with dialysis or
a dialysis-type procedure. So I worked with dialysis equipment and
in fact filed my first dialysis patents using ozone in 1988.
However, using ordinary dialysis equipment which is a hollow fibre
membrane, we discovered there was too much homolysis occurring as
a result of that; also, the thing that we refer to as mechanical
shear. The very fact of pumping the blood round outside the body
can cause all sorts of trauma to cells—there are thermal
reactions, there are pressure zones, the pumping head itself can
actually crush cells—so we had to look at a number of factors. And
then, when we did more research, we found that O4 in particular
had some very unique responses.
It has a phenomenal amount of electrons; as a matter of interest,
in O4 you have 40 electrons, and that makes it a very powerful
negative ionizing platform drifting around in your bloodstream. It
was also far more stable than O3 which again was completely the
reverse of what everyone was projecting.
It was very evident that O3 had a better oxidative effect, and
that was very effective in eliminating infected cells, but O4 had
the ability because of its ionization to break down, we believe,
the RNA, and of course uracil, which is a very important sugar
combination—the 5-carbon sugar in the virus RNA—was actually being
broken down. Well, when we actually achieved this, we did our
first study down at Biotest Laboratories here in Miami—hence my
incarceration down here.
We did this study and as far as I know, for the first time in
history, using aphaeresis we successfully converted HIV-positive
to negative, and we could do this time and time again using PCR.
That's the reason we came here, actually, because Biotest
Laboratories in conjunction with Miami University had this latest
state-of-the-art equipment; and from that very moment, the FDA
witch hunt started.
We tried to keep a relatively low profile but of course the word
soon got around the system, and then one night I came home and the
SWAT team descended, guns drawn, and eight of them sort of crashed
in the front door. I was arrested and charged with practicing
medicine without a license, which of course is complete nonsense.
But the SWAT team, instead of looking for anything that might
indeed have been relevant to my practicing medicine without a
license, all they did was dig out all my patent specifications,
technical data and intellectual mechanisms.
So they came with a very specific directive from the FDA, to seize
all my intellectual property rights. From there I was thrown into
prison. Eventually I had charges from the FDA which boil down to
sending and selling ozone generators from inter-state—interstate
trading laws, etc. Unfortunately, a couple of months after I was
in prison, it was discovered that I had a very severe heart
condition. In fact, if this radio show had been yesterday I doubt
very much if I could have done it. It's progressed to a point now
where I'm collapsing and having blackouts and stuff, but still
hanging in there. I've just recently done a technical paper.
Well, from that episode this series of things went on, and as you
quite rightly say—and I certainly won't bore your listeners with
the phenomenal list of violations against me—I'm now into my third
year; come October I'll be commencing my fourth year without any
trial. I've just recently been appointed some new attorney who is
hopeful of trying to get me bond. In fact, Dr. Michael Carpendale
and other doctors very courageously were flying into Florida for a
major hearing in front of the judge.
Everything was scheduled but at the very last moment the FDA
stepped in again and the hearing was cancelled, and my research
team had to frantically phone around and cancel everyone coming
in. I did get bond, much to the amazement of the FDA, which was
really an administrative error, and I was out for a few months.
During that time we managed to get a number of aphaeresis systems
put together and out into studies.
Most of the studies which were conducted in and around the United
States of course have already had the FDA SWAT teams descend on
them, close them down and seize equipment. And we've had things
reported like seven P24-antigen negatives, a couple of PCR
negatives, but at no time have we ever been able to get into the
real completion of a study. In every case, I think the doctors
would tell you they've seen absolutely dramatic results, and
that's not from me because this information has been fed back to
They are very concerned that they're prevented from pursuing this,
since the process does really show some pretty dramatic potential.
The only way we are ever going to get this out there is if the
AIDS groups get up and demand polyatomic aphaeresis so that we can
get these studies up and running. We've got a group working with
two very, very prominent stars who hope to apply sufficient
pressure to be able to get this achieved.
During our studies we managed to determine that protein aspects in
the blood, in other words, high protein levels would have an
inhibiting effect on the success of the procedure. The normal
procedure that has been adopted by the Germans, i.e., introducing
antioxidants—which is very popular over here too—was also negating
the effects of ozone.
Everyone in the United States can enjoy the wonderful efficacy of
ozone; there is nothing against the law that you can't use it, and
there are several ways of applying it. In our protocols, prior to
treatment the patients will be receiving no antioxidants so that
we get the maximum oxidative effect from the O3 component which we
use 2 percent by weight, and 6 percent by weight of O4; and we
have a pretty rigid nutritional program too.
GN: So let me see if I can put this into perspective. Basil
Wainwright is now in a jail in Florida for developing a special
form of ozone machine that puts an O4 into the body. There are a
number of patients, estimated as high as 200, who have undergone
this polyatomic aphaeresis treatment so far. These have included
HIV, environmental and degenerative diseases, approximately thirty
persons with AIDS. Of those thirty people, all show dramatic
improvement, seven are P24-antigen negative, and two are PCR
negative, meaning there is no HIV viral DNA found in their bodies,
and the P24 means there is no active replication—all replication
of the HIV is done.
For the effort, you have been put in prison without trial. When
the doctors did come to testify on your behalf, the FDA saw that
the hearings were postponed. On a technical glitch you were
allowed out, and then when they found out the technical glitch
they put you back in; and you have been in violation of several
due processes including a speedy trial. Why weren't the other
doctors put on trial or arrested? Why were you the only person
involved in this?
BW: Well, because I was the primary motivating force and the one
that indeed held the patents in the United States office for
polyatomic aphaeresis, which is quite unique. The only reason that
I can think of is that I enjoyed the energy in working in the
process. We have a wonderful team, they're all terribly dedicated
to helping people, and we would like to think we are motivated in
attempting to do God's work.
Sue Ann and everyone else who have been involved have expressed
love and compassion to all these patients, so it's been more than
just a research project for me. I thoroughly enjoyed working with
the patients. Of course, the pharmaceutical companies cannot file
a patent on ozone, and you can only file patents on the
intellectual property rights or the designs of the delivery
mechanisms to the patient; and being as we have those, I suppose
the best thing they could do and their only reaction was to throw
me in prison, hoping that it would completely bring everything to
a halt. It hasn't done that.
There's been a dedicated bunch of people out there; they
definitely need more support. We would certainly provide equipment
for AIDS groups on the United States if they would only get up and
demand poly-atomic aphaeresis and demand studies which they could
do. We would be only too pleased to provide the equipment and,
indeed, a number of very top doctors are prepared to come along
and offer their services and monitor and support these test
You undoubtedly know that Ed McCabe has been doing some tremendous
work in trying to open people's horizons on these issues, and Ed
of course has been very supportive and he's become very supportive
because he's been seeing the successes. Unfortunately, a lot of
the doctors that have been involved in the research have had
terrible pressure applied to them; in fact, their very jobs and
livelihoods have been threatened by the FDA, which is very, very
sad. I must admit when I first came to the States in 1987 on this
particular project, the people told me this sort of thing existed
in the United States and I thought it was all James Bond stuff,
but of course I soon learnt to the contrary that indeed it was
fact, and here I am.
All I want to do in fact is get out of here and research and work
for the betterment of mankind and just simply conduct God's work.
In fact, I've just finished two scientific papers while I've been
incarcerated, and I've been working very, very hard. A lot of good
things: we've got a Middle East project which has been confirmed
which will be up and running very soon; the Canadian government
with NATO of course, as you've probably read, indicated great
Well, they've actually approached us and we've had talks with them
about structuring a very special process which we've developed.
It's from the blood bag to the patient, so for the armed forces,
if they get injured out in the field and they're having delivery
or transfusion of a unit of blood, there's this process we've
developed which goes in series or in line with the IV to the
patient, which actually purifies the blood with polyatomic
structures before it goes into the wounded soldier.
So, despite my various bouts of illnesses and I must admit it's
been a bit touch and go at times, I've certainly been keeping
myself active, Gary, and as I've said I've certainly been
following your program with intent and your work with intent, and
I hope your listeners out there realize what a super person you
are and how you're projecting this work and making this awareness
to the people out there.
GN: Thank you Basil Wainwright, and let's hope for the best and
that justice will be served by being fair and by seeing that your
machine is tested. I want to thank you also for being on today,
Sue Ann Taylor. Any closing thought for us?
SAT: Well, the closing thought that I have is, after the raid the
mayor of the city gave the Department of Health the opportunity
that if they wanted the study to continue, he would make space
available in a hospital and make the patients the guests of the
city. For them to turn down that offer and shut it down without
looking at the patients' records, of which the blood tests all
showed improvements, or watching a demonstration— that's when I
started to believe that there was some level of a conspiracy
happening right before my eyes, because they had made up their
minds in the face of an offer from the mayor and said let's finish
it right here.
The only other point that I wanted to make, that I found alarming,
is that people who have the ability to make those decisions were
that closed-minded about the patients' pleas that this could save
our lives, that they shut the door in their faces.
GN: Sue Ann Taylor, you learned a good lesson, and that lesson
unfortunately is a bitter one: not always do the patients count
when there is a political or economic agenda ahead of their
interest. Thank you very much.
I am Gary Null, the program is Natural Living.
Quack doctor faces jail for
discredited Aids 'cure'
Declan Walsh in Nairobi
26 October 2000
Basil Earle Wainwright claims to have found a cure for Aids and
wants to share it with the suffering people of Kenya, his adopted
country. But first the Briton must concentrate on helping himself
as he faces the possibility of a lengthy stretch in jail for
promoting his discredited cure.
Basil Earle Wainwright claims to have found a cure for Aids and
wants to share it with the suffering people of Kenya, his adopted
country. But first the Briton must concentrate on helping himself
as he faces the possibility of a lengthy stretch in jail for
promoting his discredited cure.
On Tuesday Mr Wainwright, also known as Dr Stone, was charged in a
Nairobi court with making "polyatomic oxygen" - a concoction he
claims has cured over 500 Aids victims but which has been outlawed
by Kenyan health authorities and slammed by the medical
Former patients said that the unorthodox treatment - which
involves pumping ozone directly into the patient's bloodstream -
was expensive, costing up to £2,000 per case, traumatic, and
ultimately it was ineffective.
The 66-year-old Wiltshire man has denied all charges and was
released on a bond of 200,000 shillings (£1,730) on Tuesday.
Yesterday he doggedly defended his controversial treatment. "They
call me a crook and a conman but that is the greatest compliment I
could receive," he told The Independent from his office in a
Nairobi suburb, "because it puts me in the same category as
Galileo and Edison".
If found guilty he faces a maximum sentence of seven years or
deportation. But jail is nothing new to Mr Wainwright, who has
already spent several years in prison over the last two decades.
In 1983 he was convicted of cheating the television personality
Noel Edmonds of £70,000 over a deal involving a speedboat engine.
Then in 1990 he was imprisoned in the United States for four years
on charges of fraudulently holding himself out as a doctor. He
fled the US in the early Nineties while still on probation. A US
embassy spokesman in Nairobi confirmed last night that he was
wanted by both the Federal Bureau of Investigation and local
police authorities in Florida.
In 1996 Wainwright was enthusiastically welcomed to Kenya for
promising his "polyatomic apheresis" treatment would provide a
solution where conventional medicine had failed. An estimated
750,000 Kenyans have died of Aids and at least two million more
are carrying the HIV virus.
Mr Wainwright's work won public support from certain church
figures and even from Winnie Madikizela, former wife of South
Africa's former president Nelson Mandela. But reports soon
filtered out of failed treatment of patients who had paid massive
bills to the Briton, known as "Dr Roderick Stone".
Mildred Wambui brought her HIV-infected daughter, Brenda, to Mr
Wainwright in May 1997. For five months the five-year-old girl
received daily treatments of ozone at a cost of 7,000 shillings
(£60) per week. But the uncomfortable treatment - administered
using an oxygen mask, needles and an tube inserted in the anus -
failed to turn the disease around and Brenda died the following
"Brenda was terrified during every session but we were ready to
try anything," said Mrs Wambui. The treatment was her husband's
idea. "He was convinced it would work We wanted to take it as a
family but we didn't have the money. So we chose our daughter
because she was the most precious."
Mr Wambui died of Aids last year.
After receiving a series of similar complaints, the Kenyan health
authorities deemed Mr Wainwright's operation illegal in 1998. They
have made a number of attempts to close it down. Last January
police and health officials raided a private clinic operated by Mr
Wainwright in an affluent neighbourhood of the coastal town of
Mombasa. The "doctor" had fled but they found a 10-bed hospital
ward and medical equipment. A nurse confirmed to police that
patients had been receiving the outlawed treatment. Months later
the police caught up with Mr Wainwright and arrested him.
"I don't want to say anything except that we are very happy he is
in court," said Dr Richard Muga, the director of Kenya's medical
But Mr Wainwright stands by his controversial treatment. Speaking
from his home in the suburb of Karen, he said he had 519 "fully
documented and proven" cases of HIV reversal thanks to polyatomic
"If they want to get rid of me they should test it and disprove
it. I am the only person in the world who holds a patent for the
inactivation of HIV," he said, quoting the patent number as
The court case was being brought by senior Kenyan medical figures
who were "quaking at the knees" out of fear that his treatment
would be seen to be successful, he said. He refused to elaborate
any further, excusing himself because he had "important studies to
do". The website of his Kenyan company, Polyatomic Apheresis
Research Limited, (www.polyo2.org) offers further information. It
says that polyatomic apheresis not only reverses HIV but also
cures a wide range of life-threatening conditions including
cancer, tumours, hepatitis, tuberculosis multiple sclerosis and
According to the biographical information, Mr Wainwright was
nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize for Medicine three times. He
worked as a research consultant for the General Motors, Ford and
Chrysler car companies in the US during the Seventies. In the late
Eighties he worked in the Ministry of Defence, developing an
electrical "stinger" device for riot-control use by the Royal
Ulster Constabulary in Northern Ireland.
A British embassy spokesman in Nairobi could not comment on
whether Mr Wainwright had worked for the MoD. However, he said the
embassy wished to speak to the man about a second passport he is
understood to hold in the name of Roderick Edward Stone. "We have
asked Mr Wainwright for clarification on who exactly he is. He has
yet to come back to us," said the spokesman.
A report in the Daily Nation newspaper last week said Mr
Wainwright had claimed that the second passport was provided by
MI5 to help him escape the US, where his life was under threat.
Mar 31 1993
King Con Returns
A bumbling justice system has allowed
self-proclaimed AIDS miracle worker Basil Wainwright to
continue peddling hope -- with harrowing results
Adam Von Furstenberg remembers seeing the hypodermic needle taped
to his right arm pop upright like a jack-in-the-box and knowing he
was in big trouble. The machine that was supposed to be converting
his blood from HIV-positive to HIV-negative had malfunctioned.
Rather than returning ozone-treated blood to his body, the device
was pumping ozone gas directly into his bloodstream, and the
technician in charge of the procedure was nowhere to be found. For
a full five seconds the bubble of gas pushed through his system,
depriving his heart of blood and causing him to go into cardiac
arrest. His right lung partially collapsed.
Von Furstenberg, a 32-year-old nurse from Melbourne, was one of
twenty terminally ill Australians who had paid $3000 for what was
billed as a life-saving four-week trip to an innovative clinic on
the Philippine island of Cebu. What the patients had in fact
endured since their arrival in late February, he says, was an
unmitigated nightmare: The conditions at the "clinic", a small
two-story home replete with cockroaches and open sewage drains,
were squalid. The no-protein diet amounted to starvation by
degrees. Most chilling, the machinery intended to cleanse
patients' blood was so unsanitary that those who suffered from
cancer were worried they might contract AIDS from HIV-tainted
equipment. The meager staff didn't appear troubled about using
unsterile tubing to transport blood into cancer patients. The
magical ozone gas, clients were assured, would kill both ailments,
"We lived in a place worse than the gutter," Von Furstenberg
recalls. "A concentration camp, we took to calling it."
The day after his heart failure, Von Furstenberg watched a cancer
patient hobble into the so-called insufflation room, where ozone
was piped into her rectum. The woman, 22-year-old Jody Baker,
returned looking ashen, her belly distended. Less than three hours
later, she was dead.
The next day Von Furstenberg fled the Cebu facility, returning to
Melbourne. Within a week news of the unlicensed clinic, which was
subsequently raided by Philippines authorities, hit the Australian
papers. A scandal was born. Headlines roared. TV anchors spoke in
On this side of the Pacific the fiasco would have been just
another macabre tale for the tabloids, were it not for one strange
circumstance: The man who invented the machine that came close to
killing Adam Von Furstenberg, the man who championed the process
that apparently killed Jody Baker, was none other than South
Florida's con man supreme: Basil Earle Wainwright.
It was Wainwright who reportedly leased clinic operators two of
his "Polyatomic Apheresis" machines for a total of $45,000.
Wainwright who sent technicians to the Cebu clinic. Wainwright who
advised that the terminally ill Australians be put on a no-protein
diet. Wainwright who personally guaranteed a doubting Von
Furstenberg that he would return from the Philippines
HIV-negative. "I called him three times before I left for Cebu,"
Von Furstenberg says. "He kept pressuring me to buy one of his
insufflation units for $2500." A unit similar to the one used on
Jody Baker before she died.
The same Wainwright who in the past year has lured a handful of
South Floridians into bankrolling his operations, all while he was
under federal indictment. The same Wainwright who currently boasts
to reporters of running seven "successful studies" with the
The same Basil Wainwright profiled in an April 1992 New Times
cover story. When that article was published, the 59-year-old
British citizen appeared destined to spend the next dozen years in
prison. Jailed in Florida in 1990 on state charges of practicing
medicine without a license, he was also awaiting trial on federal
fraud charges stemming from his sale of machines he claimed could
But Wainwright, a chubby, blue-eyed inventor chased from England
after being found guilty of 22 counts of fraud, theft, and forgery
in that country, has always said he loves America for its
"encouragement of the entrepreneurial spirit." Where else can an
ex-con allegedly launch yet another fraud from his prison cell?
That's precisely what Wainwright seems to have done last year.
While serving his six-year state prison sentence at Florida City's
South Florida Reception Center, he organized a new company called
Polyatomic Apheresis Inc. (PAI), and enlisted J. Claybrook Lewis,
a softspoken disciple, as his partner. Even as Wainwright
consented to plead guilty to the state charges in exchange for his
freedom, he and Lewis had laid the groundwork for PAI. Within
weeks of his release this past May, he was back researching and
marketing his revamped cure for AIDS.
And he had plenty of help. Not only was Wainwright aided by a
cultish following of ozone believers, but also by a progression of
federal judges who unwittingly fostered his activities by freeing
him on a $100,000 bond and consenting to delay his federal fraud
trial for nearly two years.
PAI's chief product was the Polyatomic Apheresis machine, which,
according to the company's literature, uses ozone to cure AIDS.
Unlike Wainwright's previous invention (the one that inspired the
first round of charges), which piped ozone through a tube and into
people's rectums, the new machine was designed to draw blood from
patients, treat it with ozone, and then pump it back into the
Both processes rely on the curative value of ozone. The bluish
gas, composed of three oxygen atoms bonded together, is best known
as the atmosphere's fast-decaying protective layer. The Food and
Drug Administration forbids its use on humans in the United
States, unless the user is granted a waiver. In Europe, however,
clinicians used ozone for decades to treat a variety of ailments
ranging from yeast infections to cancer. Despite tomes of
anecdotal evidence, the gas has yet to be scientifically proven as
a cure for anything. In fact, because ozone is a powerful killer
of cells, it can prove lethal in high dosages.
In recent years holistic practitioners in the States have looked
to ozone as a miracle cure for the AIDS epidemic. They, along with
greedy investors, have proved easy pickings for Wainwright's
messiah charm and uncanny way with technobabble.
"Basil hit the ground running, that's for sure," says former
associate Bill Delp. "He wasn't a month out of prison and he had
his whole plan mapped out." That plan included setting up a
storefront in a Pompano Beach strip mall, where Wainwright oversaw
the assembly of his new apheresis machines and coordinated the
leasing and sale of units to clinics worldwide. More important, he
and Claybrook Lewis set about recruiting investors for the
venture, which was detailed in slick promotional literature.
Delp, an electrical engineer specializing in health technology,
met Wainwright through an investor and was quickly enlisted as an
unpaid technician. Three weeks after meeting Wainwright, Delp
traveled to Nassau to install apheresis machines at a Bahamian
holistic health-care center. Over the next six months he would
return to Nassau seven times and travel with Wainwright to Nevada
to set up machines there. As in his former days as a
self-proclaimed automotive guru, Wainwright apparently used the
cash drawn from investors to fuel a lavish, jet-setting lifestyle.
"We always went first class," Delp says.
Though Delp personally oversaw only a few installations, he says
Wainwright claimed to have sent his machinery to more than a dozen
clinics around the world, including San Francisco, Toronto, and
Wainwright himself refuses to speak with New Times "until the
paper is prepared to tell the truth," as one PAI official phrased
it. Lewis declined comment for the same reason. But his wife Mary,
PAI's secretary and treasurer, insists that both her husband and
Wainwright "are guilty of nothing," and affirms that PAI is
involved in the Cebu clinic. "Some pretty good things are
happening," Mary Lewis notes, "according to the press we get from
Delp says he agreed to help Wainwright because he was compelled by
the possibility that ozone could cure AIDS. "That was before I saw
the lab results on Basil's patients." By October, data from the
blood tests commissioned by Wainwright had made Delp leery. "I
started to press Basil for more patent information, more
technical, medical, and financial data," Delp says. "I started
getting calls from investors who wanted to know if this guy was
for real. Basil's response was always, 'We've got to fast-track
this thing. I've no time for these questions!'"
Most unsettling of all was the inventor's religious manipulation
of his minions. "Basil was constantly playing this whole martyr
role," Delp recalls. "Clay Lewis and the others worshipped the
guy. It reminded me of this cult stuff out in Waco. It was always,
'Basil's doing God's work.' The investors were like churchgoers as
well. The 'God Squad,' I called them. And Basil knew his part by
heart. I actually saw him make two investors feel guilty for
taking time from his mission of saving lives to ask for something
as mundane as financial information."
In December Delp began urging investors to ask for their money
back. Wainwright countered by accusing his technician of trying to
steal his technology. "He claimed I was a murderer, that I was
running a clinic myself. He even threatened my girlfriend," Delp
At least one investor did lose faith in Wainwright. Susan Hilton,
a senior citizen from Delray Beach, remembers being given a grand
tour of PAI's tiny headquarters last November. The way Lewis and
Wainwright told it, her $100,000 investment would return a healthy
profit and earn her a place in Heaven. "I thought of the machines
being sent to Africa," Hilton says. "After I wrote the check, I
felt I'd done this wonderful thing. Basil said, 'God bless you,
you've just helped humanity so much.' I must have had a big sign
on my forehead that read SUCKER."
Hilton says she was told her money had purchased stock worth four
percent of PAI. But over the next two months, PAI officials
ignored her demands for more detailed financial statements. In
February, at Delp's urging, she went to state authorities. On
Friday, March 12, police arrested Wainwright and Lewis on four
counts apiece, including grand theft and fraudulent sale of
unregistered securities. Though still awaiting his fraud trial in
federal court, Wainwright posted bail in state court and again
went free. Lewis also posted bail and is currently residing at his
home in Plantation.
Despite the arrests, many PAI followers maintain Wainwright and
Lewis are the victims of a nefarious conspiracy hatched by the big
pharmaceutical companies to keep ozone from assuming its rightful
place as a wonder drug. "I think Wainwright's honestly trying to
help people," says William Cave, a Fort Lauderdale man who
manufactures a machine he says destroys cancerous tumors with
microwave heat. "Why don't you write an expose about the American
Billy Austin, who loaned $10,000 to PAI's cause this past June,
agrees. "I've used Wainwright's machine on animals and I've seen
the results with my own eyes," the South Miami veterinarian
insists. "But of course I'm concerned I won't get my money back.
Especially if the government doesn't let Wainwight do his work."
One Coral Gables pediatrician, who says he routinely uses ozone to
treat patients, believes Wainwright's most recent arrest is merely
evidence of the powerful forces aligned against him. The doctor,
who put $50,000 into PAI in July, threatened to sue New Times if
his name appeared in print.
Delp contends investors aren't the only ones Wainwright has duped.
"Basil used to laugh about how he has fooled the doctors into
believing he has a bad heart," Delp recalls. "He got himself
appointed a free lawyer in his [federal] fraud case by claiming he
was indigent. Indigent? He's got a $50,000 speedboat that costs
$300 a month just to dock."
Indeed, the federal government is proving to be Wainwright's
choicest rube. Thanks to judicial dawdling, the defendant, who was
indicted two years ago, has yet to stand trial on the ten pending
federal counts of fraud, which could send him to prison for twenty
years. Wainwright's voluminous court record shows that he has been
granted half a dozen new trial dates by four different judges. On
two ocassions, federal prosecutors endorsed the delays. The case
has languished for so long that one of the government's primary
witnesses has suffered a relapse of her cancer, which caused yet
Faced with the embarrassment of Wainwright's most recent arrest,
federal prosecutors did finally haul him back into custody at a
March 19 bond revocation hearing. The inventor sighed pitifully as
Assistant U.S. Attorney Debra Herzog presented Judge Ursula
Ungaro-Benages with credit card records that documented his trips
to California, Texas, Nassau, and beyond. Loyal investors might
have been intrigued to learn that the American Express bills
averaged more than $10,000 per month. Wainwright, Herzog added,
was more than two years overdue on his tourist visa.
Unrepentant, the tortured inventor insisted that he never knew his
bond agreement forbade him to leave South Florida A a stance he
maintained even after Herzog showed him his very own signature on
a form detailing the conditions of his bond.
"I don't think there's much of an argument," Ungaro-Benages said.
"The defendant's claim of ignorance in this situation is a little
disingenuous. Bond is remanded."
Wainwright made one last, gasping effort: "I swear to you, your
honor! I swear by Almighty God I had no idea!"
The judge cast him a tired look, as she banished him to the
custody of the Bureau of Prisons. "I would suggest to you, sir,
that this is willful ignorance," she announced. "If it's ignorance
Apparatus and method for inactivation
of human immunodeficiency virus
United States Patent 6027688
[ PDF ]
Wainwright, Basil E. (Fort Lauderdale, FL)
An apparatus and method for the inactivation of infectious
organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa, and
especially for the inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus in
proteinaceous material such as blood and blood products, without
adversely affecting the normal physiological activity of the
material, by contacting it for a time interval of only about 16
seconds with an ozone-oxygen mixture having an ozone concentration
of only about 27 µ/ml. The apparatus includes a gas-liquid contact
apparatus through which the material and ozone-oxygen mixture flow
in contacting, counter-current relationship, and an ozone
generator which produces an ozone-oxygen mixture having a resonant
frequency of about 7.83 Hz. The apparatus and method of the
invention provide precise control of the concentration of ozone
and the contact time between the material to be treated and the
5052382 Apparatus for the controlled
generation and administration of ozone
October, 1991 Wainwright
4986968 Ozone generator
January, 1991 Hirth et al.
4632980 Ozone decontamination of blood
and blood products December,
1986 Zee et al. 604/4
oxygenator February, 1983
4314344 Method and apparatus for
generating selected gas concentrations
February, 1982 Johns et al.
3727612 DIALYSIS METHOD AND
APPARATUS April, 1973 Sayers
et al. 422/44
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to an apparatus and method for the
treatment of blood and blood products to inactivate infectious
organisms, such as viruses and bacteria, and especially to
inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in human blood
and blood products.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Infectious diseases which once decimated entire populations are
now largely controlled by modern drugs and sanitation methods. One
virus, however, has remained elusive to medical science, and is
infecting the human population in epidemic proportions. The human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the etiologic agent of acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), once generally regarded as a
malady of homosexuals and intravenous drug abusers, has become a
threat to all strata of society. In most instances, this virus
leads to AIDS, and eventually death. Prior to the present
invention, there was no known cure, nor were there any effective
treatments for controlling the virus without causing unwanted side
Some scientists believe that HIV may have been introduced into the
human population through use of polio vaccines made from the
tissue of infectious African green monkeys, many of which have
been discovered to be infected with a retrovirus related to HIV.
The rapid spread of this disease, however, is generally believed
to be transmitted through infected blood and blood products, and
through sexual contact. Drug abusers sharing used intravenous
needles, persons receiving blood transfusions, and homosexuals and
heterosexuals engaging in "unsafe" sexual contact are particularly
Intense efforts are being made to reduce the infectious risk of
human blood products, and to control the spread of the virus among
the human population.
Most efforts have been directed toward the development of drugs
for controlling or killing the virus, but unlike most viruses, HIV
becomes part of the genetic code of the cell. In order to kill the
virus, it is necessary to destroy the cell. Moreover, the virus
changes from individual to individual, and even within one person
it can mutate in a matter of hours. This makes it virtually
impossible to develop a drug specific to the virus, although some
drugs, such as AZT, have shown promising results in neutralizing
the virus. Unfortunately, AZT also produces serious side effects
in many people because of its toxicity, and its use is therefore
Because of these difficulties, other treatments have been tried or
proposed, including thermal inactivation of viruses in blood
derivatives, gamma-irradiation, porous membrane filtration, and
solvent/detergent mixtures. However, these methods generally
produce deleterious side effects and have achieved only limited
The prevailing view has been that by carefully screening blood and
blood products to detect and eliminate contaminated materials, and
by preventing the sharing of used needles among intravenous drug
users, and by practising safe sex, the risk of transmission of the
disease can be minimized. All of these methods are effective and
do help reduce the rate of spread of the disease, but they do not
offer a treatment or cure for the disease once a person becomes
Moreover, lax and ineffectual screening of blood donors, and
unreliable methods for detecting contaminated blood supplies,
result in numerous instances of infected blood being made
available for use in patients needing blood transfusions. Further,
intravenous drug abusers generally do not pay heed to the dangers
of sharing a needle; and passion, rather than prudence, usually
controls sexual behavior.
Recent studies also indicate that the virus may be transmitted in
ways other than previously believed. For instance, some scientists
now believe that the HIV may be transmitted through mucous
membranes, or even the skin. Dendritic cells move through the skin
and mucous membranes searching for foreign proteins like bacteria
and viruses. They pick up these foreign proteins and carry them to
the lymph nodes, where T4 cells are stimulated to multiply and
migrate into the blood to destroy the foreign invader. T4 cells
are primed to die once they are infected, and over time the
reduction in the number of T4 cells available to fight infection
leads to collapse of the immune system.
Regardless of how the disease is transmitted, people are becoming
infected at an alarming rate and an effective treatment is needed.
Ozone, the triatomic allotrope of oxygen, is a potent oxidant that
has been shown to possess broad spectrum anti-microbial activity.
It has been widely used in the treatment of sewage and in the
purification of water, and was used medically in the treatment of
wounds at least as early as World War I.
Advancements made by scientists in recent years using ozone to
inactivate viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa have been well
documented. It has reportedly been successfully used in several
countries, most notably West Germany, in the treatment of AIDS,
and specifically to inactivate HIV. In these treatments, ozone is
generated from medically pure oxygen by electrical corona arc
discharge. Blood from the patient being treated is then exposed to
the ozone for a predetermined period of time, and at predetermined
ozone concentrations to inactivate the virus.
In these prior art systems, the patient is treated with ozone by
rectal insufflation, or by minor or major autohemotherapy. Much of
the existing technology relies upon bubbling techniques to contact
the blood or blood components with ozone/oxygen mixtures.
These methods offer inferior surface contact between the gas and
blood, with little or no absorption controllability. Blood cells
are also mechanically damaged by the bubbling techniques or porous
membrane filters used in such methods, and it is difficult to
control the concentrations of ozone necessary to inactivate the
virus without adversely affecting normal biological and metabolic
functions of the remaining blood components.
Further, treatment times are excessively long in prior art
methods, taking up to eleven months for a full treatment protocol.
This long treatment time makes conventional methods impractical
for global treatment of the HIV epidemic. Moreover, excessively
long treatment times cause discomfort and stress to the patient.
In addition, ozone is produced in accordance with prior art
methods by using either low frequency (typically 50-60 Hz) or
other, higher frequency generators. These methods of generation
induce corresponding resonant frequencies in the ozone molecules,
which, when exposed to the blood, expose the DNA to unnatural
frequencies. Some research indicates that exposure to such
frequencies can produce abnormal DNA activity and cell growth
Consequently, even though ozone has shown promise in the
inactivation of HIV, the shortcomings of prior art apparatus and
methods have limited its use and hindered its acceptance as a
viable medical tool.
There is thus need for an apparatus and method for using ozone in
the treatment of blood contaminated with HIV, which enables
accurate control over the process and in which treatment time is
very short. Preferably, the apparatus and method should inactivate
HIV but not adversely affect normal biological or metabolic
activity in the blood, and should not involve the use of filters,
bubblers, and the like, which can cause mechanical damage and
trauma to the blood cells.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an
apparatus and method for using ozone in the treatment of blood and
blood products, wherein precise control is maintained over the
concentration of ozone, and blood-ozone exposure time is very
short, so that infectious organisms are destroyed while normal
biological and metabolic activities in the blood and blood
products are not adversely affected.
Another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus and
method for the inactivation of HIV by exposure of infected blood
and/or blood products to ozone, in which mechanical damage to the
blood and blood products is avoided.
A further object is to inactivate viruses, bacteria, fungi and
protozoa by exposure of infected blood to ozone gas that has been
produced with a generator operating at about 8 Hz, thereby
approximating the natural resonant frequency of human biologic
Yet another object is to provide a new device for generating ozone
from oxygen by using electric corona arc discharge, and then
subjecting the ozone molecules to a low resonant frequency to
approximate the natural resonant human biological frequency.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a device for
counter flow of ozone gas and blood or blood products, in which
substantially complete contact is made between the ozone gas and
blood during a very short time period, without causing mechanical
damage to the blood cells.
Yet another object is to provide an apparatus for gravity flow of
blood or blood products in counter-current relationship with an
ozone/oxygen gas mixture, in which the apparatus is automatically
adjusted to maintain a constant flow rate to thereby insure a
predetermined contact time between the ozone and blood; or which
may be adjusted to different blood flow rates in dependence upon
the characteristics of the blood and/or requirements of the
These and other objects and advantages of the invention are
achieved by a simple and relatively inexpensive apparatus which
uses some commercially available components and some unique
components in an extra-corporeal loop for the treatment of blood
and other materials with precisely controlled concentrations of
ozone over very short periods of time. Blood or blood products may
be withdrawn from a patient or other source and caused to pass
through the apparatus in a continuous process to destroy
infectious agents in the blood or other material to be treated.
The apparatus preferably includes a mobile cart on which the
treatment apparatus is mounted, so that it may be easily moved
about. The treatment apparatus includes an oxygen tank containing
medically pure oxygen that is supplied through a gas regulator to
the ozone generator of the invention, where the oxygen is
subjected to an electric corona arc discharge at a specific
frequency to produce ozone. An ozone-oxygen mixture of precisely
controlled concentration is then caused to flow from the ozone
generator and upwardly through a gas-liquid contact apparatus,
where the mixture makes thorough and intimate contact with a
counter-flowing thin film of blood or other material to be treated
flowing downwardly through the gas-liquid contact apparatus.
A pair of pumps may be operated proportionately, and the angle of
inclination of the gas-liquid contact apparatus adjusted to
achieve an essentially constant flow rate of blood through the
contact apparatus, depending upon the consistency of the blood and
the requirements of a particular patient.
The ozone generator of the invention comprises a tubular structure
of silica glass or similar material, having an inlet for oxygen
and an outlet for the ozone-oxygen mixture. In this generator,
dual oscillators drive two sets of electrodes which alter the
structure of oxygen and produce a mixture having predetermined
proportions of O2, O3 and O4. The mixture flowing from the ozone
generator is subjected to a frequency of 7.83 Hz.
It has been found in experiments using the apparatus and methods
of the invention that exposure of HIV-infected blood to an
ozone-oxygen mixture having an ozone concentration of no more than
about 27 .mu.g/ml, or 2.0% by weight, and a surface pressure of
about 2.2 psi, for a time period of only about sixteen seconds,
resulted in inactivation of up to approximately 99% of the HIV,
with no deleterious effect on cellular metabolism or DNA
The invention is particularly adapted for the extra-corporeal
treatment of human blood in a continuous process, wherein blood is
withdrawn from a patient, circulated through the treatment
apparatus of the invention and returned to the patient. Although
the specific conditions of the treatment process may vary from
patient to patient, depending upon the general health of the
patient and the condition of the blood, satisfactory results are
generally obtained when the blood is caused to flow through the
gas-liquid contact apparatus at a flow rate of about 65 ml/min,
typically achieved when the gas-liquid contact apparatus is
inclined at an angle of about 27 DEG to the horizontal, and the
concentration of ozone in the ozone-oxygen mixture is no more than
about 27 .mu.g/ml and is at a surface pressure of about 2.2 psig.
The gas-liquid contact apparatus of the invention is non-foaming,
whereby it is not necessary to reconstitute the blood after
treatment, and treatment with the apparatus of the invention is
virtually free of mechanical damage to blood components,
especially in view of the variable onclusion pumps used to pump
blood through the apparatus. Moreover, quick-connect/disconnect
fittings are used to attach blood lines to the apparatus, whereby
all components which might be contaminated with infected blood can
be quickly and easily replaced between treatments, so that more
treatments can be effected in a shorter amount of time than with
conventional apparatus. The invention also provides means for
detecting and proportionately adjusting blood flow rate and ozone
concentration. Thus, if restriction to flow should occur, a flow
sensor detects the reduction in flow and proportionately reduces
the drive to the high and low frequency generators to thereby
reduce the concentration of ozone.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The foregoing and other objects and advantages of the
invention will become apparent from the following detailed
description when considered in conjunction with the accompanying
drawings, wherein like reference characters designate like parts
throughout the several views, and wherein:
FIG. 1 is a view in elevation of an apparatus according to
FIG. 2 is an enlarged view in elevation of the unique
cascade tube of the invention used to contact blood with ozone;
FIG. 3 is a further enlarged, fragmentary sectional view
of a portion of the cascade tube of the invention;
FIG. 4 is an end view of the cascade tube of FIG. 3,
looking in the direction of the arrow "4" in FIG 3;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view of the
silica cell ozone generator according to the invention, with a
portion of the apparatus for inducing a desired wave form and
resonant frequency on the ozone molecules;
FIGS. 6 and 7 are transverse sectional views of the ozone
generator of FIG. 5, taken along lines 6--6 and 7--7,
respectively in FIG. 5;
FIG. 8 is a schematic circuit diagram of the means for
energizing the coils in the ozone generator and for inducing a
predetermined wave form and frequency of 7.83 Hz on the ozone
generated by the ozone generator;
FIG. 9 is a schematic circuit diagram for the high
frequency generator in FIG. 8;
FIG. 10 is a schematic circuit diagram for the low
frequency generator in FIG. 8;
FIG. 11 is a schematic circuit diagram of the swamp field
generator used in the circuit of FIG. 8 for minimizing
undesireable field effects and spurious signals in the working
FIG. 12 is a schematic diagram of a typical dialysis
system used in the prior art.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
Referring more specifically to the drawings, a blood treatment
system in accordance with the invention is represented generally
at 10 in FIG. 1.
In a preferred arrangement, the system 10 comprises a mobile cart
11 having wheels or casters 12 mounted on the bottom so that the
cart can be easily moved about. The cart includes a frame 13
having three transversely mounted shelves 14a, 14b and 14c on
which are supported the operative components of the invention.
An oxygen tank 15 is strapped on the bottom shelf 14a, and
contains medically pure oxygen whose discharge is regulated
through a conventional gas regulator valve assembly 16. A length
of tubing 17 leads from the regulator 16 to an ozone generator 18
mounted on shelf 14b, where the oxygen is subjected to an electric
corona arc discharge to produce ozone. An ozone-oxygen mixture
from the ozone generator is then supplied via conduit 19 to the
lower end of an inclined gas-liquid contact apparatus 20 supported
on brackets 21a and 21b mounted on back plate 22. The ozone-oxygen
mixture flows upwardly through the apparatus 20 to an outlet
conduit 23 and thence to the atmosphere through a pair of serially
connected ozone destructors 24 and 25, which permit variation in
the back pressure imposed on the mixture.
Blood or other fluid to be treated is introduced through a first
pump 26 into the upper end of the gas-liquid contact apparatus 20,
for gravity flow downwardly through the apparatus in a cascading,
thin film sheet to the lower end, where a pool P of the blood or
other fluid is permitted to accumulate, and thence outwardly
through a second pump 27 and filter 28 back to its source.
Thorough and intimate contact between the ozone-oxygen mixture and
blood occurs as they flow in counter-current relationship through
the apparatus 20, thus exposing essentially all of the blood to
the ozone-oxygen mixture.
The pumps 26 and 27 are preferably triple roller peristaltic pumps
with adjustable onclusion. By minimizing the extent of onclusion
exerted by the pumps on the tubing carrying the blood, the degree
of potential mechanical damage to the blood cells can be
The ozone generator 18 comprises a pair of concentric tubes 30 and
31 of silica glass or other suitable material, connected and
sealed at their adjacent ends to define an annular chamber 32
having an inlet 33 for oxygen and an outlet 34 for ozone-oxygen
mixture. A first conductive sleeve or electrode 35 is disposed
concentrically on the outer tube 31 at its inlet end, and a second
conductive sleeve or electrode 36 is disposed concentrically on
the outer tube 31 at its outlet end in axially spaced relationship
to the first electrode.
The first electrode 35 is connected with the low frequency
generator circuit B (see FIGS. 8 and 10) for producing a frequency
of approximately 1.7 kilocycles on the gas as it enters the ozone
generator to commence alteration of the incoming oxygen to O3 and
The second electrode 36 is connected with the high frequency
generator circuit A (see FIGS. 8 and 10) for producing a frequency
of approximately 8.25 kilocycles on the O2, O3 and O4 mixture as
it leaves the silica cell, and stabilizes the O4 component.
A third electrically conductive sleeve or electrode is disposed
inside the inner tube 30 in concentric, radially inwardly spaced
relationship to the two electrodes 35 and 36 and serves as a
The two tubes 30 and 31 and the annular space defined by them are
thus located between the electrodes so that gas passing through
the space is subjected to an electric corona arc discharge
produced by the electrodes, converting oxygen to ozone.
The circuitry includes means for regulating the concentration of
ozone produced in the silica cell, or generator, as determined by
blood flow rate, preset values and other parameters. This may be
accomplished by adjusting the flow rate of oxygen supplied to the
ozone generator, and/or by adjusting the outputs of the high and
low frequency generators.
The ozone-oxygen mixture produced in the ozone generator is
subjected to an extremely low frequency in the range of about 7.83
Hz, developed by the swamp field generator circuit C of FIG. 8.
This extremely low frequency generator controls the resonant
molecular structure of the gas leaving the ozone generator. This
circuit also minimizes undesireable field effects and spurious RF
signals in the working environment.
The circuit is driven from an extremely stable power supply unit
D, as shown in FIG. 8.
As shown in FIGS. 5 and 8, for example, the swamp field generator
40 may comprise a laminated core 41 with oppositely wound coils
thereon connected with complemental coils wound about the conduit
carrying the ozone-oxygen mixture. These coils are energized from
circuitry including the power supply unit D, connected through the
7.83 Hz generator, a push-pull phase lock loop generator and a
driver power amp, further details of which are shown in FIGS.
An example of suitable circuitry for generating a 7.83 Hz
frequency signal is shown in FIG. 11 (circuit C), wherein a base
frequency generator A is connected through first division
pre-selectables B and C with jumper interface blocks D, E, P and G
and operational amplifiers H and I to phase splitter J and central
voltage generator K.
Gas-Liquid Contact Apparatus
The gas-liquid contact apparatus 20 comprises a length of Pyrex or
glass tubing, preferably about 24 inches long and 20-25 mm in
diameter, with a gas inlet fitting 50 in one side, spaced
approximately 20 mm from one end, and a gas outlet fitting 51 in
the same side of the tube but spaced about 20 mm from the other
end. These fittings are each about 20 mm long and 7 mm in
Axially oriented and aligned inlet and outlet fittings 52 and 53,
respectively, for flow of blood or other fluid into and from the
tube are formed on opposite ends of the tube at its periphery on
the side diametrically opposite that on which the gas fittings are
provided. These fittings may be approximately the same size as the
gas fittings previously described and are connected with conduits
60 and 61 (FIG. 1) for flow of blood or other material from and to
a patient or other source.
The underside of the tube is formed with an undulating
configuration 54, with the undulations having an amplitude of
approximately 4 mm. These undulations define a relatively wide
bottom surface over which the blood or other fluid spreads and
tumbles as it cascades downwardly along the tube, creating a thin
film of the fluid and exposing all parts of it to the gas passing
in counter-current relationship through the tube.
The speed of operation of the pumps 26 and 27 may be
proportionately adjusted so that a pool P of the blood or other
fluid being treated forms in the lower end of the tube. This pool
is permitted to form to a depth or level indicated by a mark 55 on
the tube, or as sensed by a level sensor (not shown) provided in
association with the tube. The level sensor may be connected
through a suitable control means (not shown) to automatically
adjust the pumps to maintain a desired level of fluid in the tube.
This pool of fluid forms a liquid barrier or seal to prevent gas
from escaping through the outlet 53.
Further, the angle of inclination of the tube may be adjusted to
achieve a desired speed of flow of the blood or other fluid as it
cascades down the undulating surface of the tube. For instance,
fluids having different viscosity will flow at different speeds,
and if blood is permitted to flow too slowly it may clot or
coagulate. For instance, blood should flow through the tube 20 at
a desired flow rate of about 65 milliliters per minute. To achieve
this flow rate for fluids having different viscosity, or to adjust
the flow rate to other values depending upon the requirements of a
patient, one end 56 of the tube is pivotally supported on
stanchion 22 and the other end is supported on stanchion 21 by an
adjustment mechanism 57. This adjustment may be automatically
accomplished by providing a flow rate detector (not shown) and
suitable control means (not shown) responsive to the flow rate
detector and operable to adjust the angle of inclination of the
tube and/or to adjust the proportional speed of the pumps until
the desired flow rate of blood or other fluid is obtained.
Other means, such as a densitometer or calorimeter 58, may be
positioned to detect the condition of the blood or other fluid
flowing from the tube 20, and connected through a suitable control
means (not shown) to adjust the flow rate of the blood or other
fluid and/or the flow rate and/or concentration of the
ozone-oxygen mixture to maintain a desired condition of the blood
or other fluid.
Although the invention is described herein as applied to the
treatment of infectious diseases in humans, it should be
understood that the principles of the invention are equally
applicable to animals. Further, the invention could equally as
well be applied to the treatment of blood supplies and to the
extracorporeal treatment of patients.
While the invention has been illustrated and described in detail
herein, it is to be understood that various modifications may be
made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the
invention, as defined by the appended claims.
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