Atmospheric Electrical Power ( II )

Supplements PLAUSON, H. : Conversion of Atmsopheric Electricity
Related : Atmospheric / RF Electricity Collectors ** GUILLOT : Atmospheric Electric Generator ** JEFIMENKO : Electrostastic Motors ** ORLANDO : Atmospheric Electrical Generator ** TATE : Ambient Power Module ** Electrostatic Motors & Generators ** PERRIGO : Generator ** TENTZERIS : Ambient Energy Antenna ** WADLE : Tree Electricity **

Hermann Plauson

Hermann Plauson was an Estonian professor, engineer and inventor. Plauson investigated, among other things, the production of power based on atmospheric electricity.

Plauson was the director of the Fischer-Tropsch "Otto Traun Research Laboratories" in Hamburg, Germany during the Weimar Republic of the 1920s. He built on Nikola Tesla's idea for connecting machinery to the "wheelwork of nature". Plauson's patent no. 1540998 describe methods to convert alternating radiant static electricity into rectified continuous current pulses. His systems mainly involved needle & radium- coated electricity conducting balloons or aerostats which were connected to complex converting systems consisting of coils, capacitors, spark gaps etc. He developed an electrostatic generator called Plauson's converter. In 1920, Plauson published a research journal on the subject, titled "Production and Utilization of the Atmospheric Electricity" (Gr., Gewinnung und Verwertung der Atmosphärischen Elektrizität). A second, expanded edition of his journal was published later the same year. A copy of that edition is in the British Library at shelf mark 8754.b.36. A copy is also available in PDF-format, complete with Optical Character Recognition, through the books2ebooks service, here.

It is believed that Plauson was related to Gertrud Plauson (the exact relationship is unknown; she may have been his wife)...

Select Patents
Method of carrying out electrochemical reactions and apparatus for the use therein
USP 1540998
Conversion of atmospheric electric energy
Use of Beta-rays and X-rays in Synthesizing Liquid Hydro-carbons From Gaseous Compounds

Liquid hydrocarbons are synthesized by subjecting gaseous carbon compounds; such as are contained in water gas, coke oven gas, natural gas and gases produced by cracking heavy oils, to the action of rapidly moving electrons (#-rays) or the joint action of #-rays and X-rays. The reaction may be assisted by rotating electric and/or electromagmetic field and by catalyst in suspension in the reacting gases. The velocity of the rays should exceed one half the velocity of light and is suitably 200,000 to 260,000 kilometres per sec. The gases after exposure to the rays remain in a reactive condition the effect of which is obtained by circulating the gases under pressure. In addition to hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols &c. are obtained particularly if the gases contain water vapour. Higher boiling point hydrocarbons may be obtained by subjecting those of lower boiling point to the radiations. According to an example water gas after subjection to radiations is compressed to 800-1000 atmospheres and maintained at this pressure for a time depending on conditions of radiation, temperature and the type of hydrocarbon to be produced. The hydrocarbon produced is mainly of saturated nature. The addition of ethylene, acetylene or other unsaturated hydrocarbons to the water gas shortens the process.
Process and apparatus for converting static atmospheric electrical energy into dynamic electrical energy of any suitable high periodicity
Improvements in electric motors

External articles

"Power from the Air". Science and Invention (Formerly Electrical Experimenter), Feb. 1922, no. 10. Vol IX, Whole No. 106

"Power from the Air". Science and invention (March 1922 )

Historical Research

The leader in this field before the Second World War appears to have been Dr Hermann Plauson. Dr Plauson was an Estonian citizen who lived in Hamburg and Switzerland. He carried out experiments in Finland with aerostats manufactured from magnesium-aluminium alloy, covered with electrolytically deposited needles. The needles were further doped with a radium compound to increase local ionisation of the air. (This was the era in which the hands of watches were hand painted with radium to make them luminous in the dark).  Zinc amalgam patches were also painted onto the aerostats.  Plauson obtained a power output of between 0.72kW and 3.4kW from one and two aerostats 300m above ground level. Dr Plauson filed patents in the USA, Great Britain and Germany in the 1920s. His book "Gewinnung und Verwertung der Atmosphärischen Elektrizität" is the most detailed known account of the technology.

Other atmospheric electricity researchers contemporary to Dr Plauson included Walter Pennock and MW Dewey in the USA, Andor Palencsar in Hungary and Dr Heinrich Rudolph in Germany.  Hippolyte Charles Vion in Paris predated them all, putting forward proposals in the 1850s and 1860s.

Heinrich Rudolph made an interesting contribution to the design of the aerostat collectors.  In 1898 he designed an elliptical aerostat made up of faceted surfaces to minimise the effect of wind.  The design bears a strong resemblance to Northrop's 2003 UCARS unamnned helicopter UAV project.  The design uses the Coanda Effect to help keep the aerostat on station and minimise wind effects.

MIR's Research Programme

Since 1997 we have been carrying out theoretical research into conversion of atmospheric electricity into useable electrical power.

From a low level (5m high) simple zinc antenna we are able to obtain sufficient charge to light a number of white power LEDs. Further experimental investigations with metallic aerostat collectors and cavity resonant slow wave antennae concepts are ongoing.

A number of programmes are underway in developing countries to provide remote communities with LED lighting instead of conventional incandescent lighting. LEDs are a very efficient way to provide lighting for minimal electrical power requirements.  Atmospheric electricity would be ideally suited to powering domestic LED lighting or low energy neon lighting.

There is every reason to believe from our experimental tests and earlier research by Plauson, Jefimenko and others that Atmospheric Electricity will be able to provide practically useful levels of electrical power particularly suited for off-grid applications in the developing world.

Advantages of Atmospheric Electricity

Simple and robust technology
Low Cost technology - much cheaper than photovoltaics or wind turbines
Available day and night in all weather conditions - in fact, more power is produced at night than during the day
Available at any point on the Earth's surface...

Gewinnung und Verwertung der atmosphärischen Elektrizität, Beitrag zur Kenntnis ihrer Sammlung, Umwandlung und Verwendung...

by Hermann Plauson,...

Beysen und Maasch, 1920 - 75 pages

[ PDF ]

Gewinnung und Verwertung der atmosphärischen Elektrizität

Beitrag zur Kenntnis ihrer Sammlung, Umwandlung und Verwendung Mit 82 Figuren auf 22 Tafeln

HERMANN PLAUSON, Harmburg 1920


Motto: Wem es gelang in ein Geheimnis der Natur zu dringen Und dies in Menschenpflicht der Menschheit darzubringen, Der betet die Natur und ihrer Wunder Fülle an.Verfasser.

Es ist schwierig und wenig dankbar, ein Buch über ‘ein Gebiet zu schreiben, das bis heute fast noch gänzlich unberührt ist.

Obwohl die Lehre über atmosphärische Elektrizität an und für sich schon in gewissen Kreisen bekannt und einigermaßendurchforscht ist, auch sogar einige theoretische Abhandlungen über dieses Gebiet geschrieben sind, so ist umgekehrt auf dem Gebiete der technischen Gewinnung, Umwandlung und Verwertung von atmosphärischer Elektrizität bis jetzt nochnichts bekannt. Es kann sogar festgestellt werden, daß einige Wissenschaftler eine Gewinnung und Verwertung deratmosphärischen Elektrizität in der Praxis überhaupt bestreiten.

Wenn nun trotzdem der Verfasser dieses Wagnis unternommen hat, so trieb ihn vor allen Dingen die außerordentlicheWichtigkeit der Lösung dieser Frage für die Menscheit hierzu und dann die auf Grund von Versuchen erhaltenepersönliche Überzeugung, daß bei Verwendung aller wissenschaftlichen Errungenschaften und Forschungsergebnisse derletzten Jahre auf dem Gebiete der atmosphärischen und statischen Elektrizität, bei Benutzung der Erfahrungen auf demGebiete der drahtlosen Telegraphie und Telephonie, wie der Erzeugung von ungedämpften Schwingungen überhaupt,ferner unter Zugrundelegung der Lehre über radioaktive’Erscheinungen und deren Folgen viel größere Energiemengengesammelt werden können, als bisher nach den theoretischen Berechnungen zu erwarten war, die auf Grund desnormalen, vertikalen Leitungsstromes gelten die Erde, sowie auf Grund der Gesamtladung der Erde angestellt wurden.

s wurde vom Verfasser festgestellt, daß dies erreiCht wird sowohl durch Erhebung voll metallischen Ballons mitradioaktiven Substanzen und elektrolytisch hergestellten Nadeln usw., als auch durch geeignete weitere Verwendung undVmwandlungsart dieses Stromes (Umwandlung statischer Elektrizität in mehr oder weniger hochschwingendedynamische) sowie durch Verwendung geeigneter Kondensatorenbatterien und dereff Einschaltungsweise und zuletztdurch geeignete Schaltungsschemata. Versuche ergabeff aber, daß noch zahlreiche neue Vorfragen zu lösen waren, und datl der Ausbau des Problems, Verwertung der atmosphärischen Elektrizität, auf ganz neuen Grundlagen erfolgen mußte. Der Verfasser hofft durch diese Schrift den Beweis zu erbringen, daß er auch dieses erreichtoder wenigstens die Wege dazu angegeben hat.

Das zweite Ziel des Verfassers ist, durch baldiges Erscheinen dieses Buches breite Kreise der Wissenschaft und Elektrotechnik fürdiese Frage zu interessieren, und durch die im Buche angegebenen Anregungen möglichst viele Mitarbeiter zu gewinnen.

Es sei ferner noch gesagt, daß das Buch nicht eine abgeschlossene Forschungsarbeit zu sein beansprucht, sondern vielmehr als ersterVersuch, als Wegweiser in der vorliegenden Frage zu betrachten ist. Es bleibt sowohl in der Schreibart als auch in der Anordnung desMaterials noch viel zu wünschen übrig, da das Buch zum Teil aus Patentschriften des Verfassers entstanden ist, zum Teil aus einemVortrag über atmosphärische Elektrizität, den der Verfasser vor einer Versammlung von Fachleuten gehalten hat, um den Bau einerMusteranlage zu propagieren.

Veranlaßt durch das rege Interesse größerer Kreise für diese Frage, läßt der Verfasser dieses Buch sich seinen Weg selbst bahnen undbittet, etwa infolge der Eile sich fühlbar machenden Mängeln gegenüber nachsichtig zu sein.

Bei der Zusammenstellung dieses Buches wurde folgende Literaturbenutzt:

Mache & Schweidler: “Die atmosphärische Elektrizität”Dr. I. Zenneck: “Elektromagnetische.Schwingungen und drahtlose Telegraphie”
Dr. M. Dieckmann: “Experimentelle Untersuchungen aus dem Grenzgebietzwischen drahtloser Telegraphie und Luftelektrizität”I. Teil Teil (Zeitschrift fÜr Luftfahrt und Wissenschaft,2. Heft).

Für Leser, die dieses Gebiet nicht völlig beherrschen oder Einzelhejten darüber wissen wollen, sei zum besseren Verständnis dieserAbhandlung empfohlen, vorgenanntes Werk: Mache & Schweidler .Die “atmosphärischeElektrizität”, VerlagVieweg & Sohn,Braunschweig, durchzulesen.

Es ist dem Verfasser zum Schluß eine angenehme Pflicht, Herrn H. Otto Traun für die ihm erwiesenen Unterstützungen seineDankbarkeit auch an dieser Stelle auszudrücken.

Ferner möchte der Verfasser nichtversäumen, Herrn Max Thorn zu danken für die erste Anregung, die gesammelten Erfahrungen undKenntnisse der Allgemeinheit nicht länger vorzuenthalten, und für die Bemühungen zur Finanzierung einer hoffentlich irn Jahre 1920 zu erbauenden Versuchsanlage, wodurch dieWichtigkeit dieses Problems irn Großen praktisch vor Augen geführt werden soll.

Schließlich spricht der Verfasser Herrn Dr.-Ing. Gerhard Schmitt und seiner Assistentin, Fräulein Gertrud Hildenbrandt,für freundliche Übernahme der Korrektur, sowie Herrn Ing. Hans Koop für Ausfertigung der Zeichnungen an dieser Stelleseinen wärmsten Dank aus.

Der Verlagsbuchhandlung sei für die anerkennenswerte Ausstattung des Buches und besonders für die guteAusführungder Figurentafeln hiermit der besondere Dank des Verfassers ausgedrückt.

Der Verfasser.
Harnburg, irn Oktober 1919


Allgemeiner Teil.
Historische Entwicklung
Neuere Literatur; Patente und deren Beurteilung
Ergebnisse der Vorversuche des Verfassers
Vergleich der Sammlung der atmosphärischen Elektrizität mit der der Sonnen energie
Grundprinzip der Umwandlung statischer .atmosphärischer Elektrizität in elektromanetische Schwingungen
Prinzip der Umwandlung elektromagnetischer Schwingungen in mechanische Energie
Resonanzmotoren und ihre Wirkungsweise
Schaltungsschemata für die gewonnene atmosphärische Elektrizität
Erzeugung von Schwingungen verschiedener Dämpfung
Unipolare Einschaltung der Resonanzmotoren
Antennensysteme zur Gewinnung der atmosphärischen Elektrizität Kondensatormotoren
Unipolare Einsch.ltung der Kondensatorenbatterien
Transformatoren zur Umwandlung von statischem Gleichstrom In gewöhnliche Wechselströme
Weitere Art der Erzeugung von Wechselströmen hoher Wechselz.hl
Leitungsschemata für hochschwingende Ströme
Wirtschaftlicher Teil.
Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten der Erflndung
Ausnutzbare Energiemengen
Theorelische Unterlagen
Elektrostatische Felder
Veftikaler Leitungsstrom
Gesamtldung der Erde
Entstehungsursachen des gewonnenen Gesamtstromes
Wirtschaftliche Ausblicke
Kostenanschlag für eine Anlage
Verhütung von B1itzschäden

Partial machine translation ( uncorrected )

General part

The production and utilization of atmospheric electricity for the well-being and prospering of mankind is a goal of scholars and researchers; the implementation remained however until today a pious desire, and it did not succeed to somewhat really reach [ WertvoJles ] and for industrial purposes usable.

The cause for this is not to be looked for in the fact that the electricity freely available in atmospheric air is not to be exploited at all, but primarily in that the science before solution of this problem had to solve a set from preliminary questions to, by their clarifying only the possibility of an utilization of atmospheric electricity became at all conceivable.

Only in the last years their utilization could be made due to new experiences and investigations on that areas of the atmospheric electricity.

If we try many ages [ zurückwand~rn ] and to investigate the past according to data concerning atmospheric electricity then we must notice with being astonished the fact that nothing is new in the world that for a long time, for a very long time before the knowledge of the electricity at all admits the features of the atmospheric electricity was and that they, what appears still less [ glaublich ] were even used.

The knowledge of the effect and utilization of atmospheric electricity hand back already many thousand years, as we can infer from the holy writing. Thus we read all geweihten persons, with exception of the upper priest in the Bible Moses that the tabernacle in all-holiest of the temple Jehova possessed the power to kill when affecting by a thunderbolt or a fire. Furthermore we read that 40 priests had dared enter in the absence of Moses and Aaron, and that from the tabernacle lightning drove out, which killed all 40 priests. If we experience now far from the books of the kings the design of the new temple by king Salomon, then from the electrotechnical point of view can only come only to a conclusion that Moses and Aaron knew already at that time as one could collect an unknown godlike power from the tabernacle, as one had to [ aurbewahren ] the same, and as it worked, because of-today's point of view of the Wissenschart regarded the federal drawer can have been nothing else as a Leyden bottle or a condenser of very large capacity, which by means of arranged points was loaded with atmospheric electricity . The fact that the charge kept itself good and worked well is only the constant shop with atmospheric electricity to attribute as well as the dry climate in Palestine.

It comes out from the Biblical description that the ssundeslade out well isolationable noble wood had fitted made and also gold and such a thing from the inside and outside. Thereby all conditions were erffillt rur a good electrical condenser or a Leyden jar.

E.G. the gentleman writes the Moses forwards (2. Book Moses, Chap.25, verse 10-15)

Furthermore still is given the description of the building in the Chap.37-38. An electrical engineer could not make it better nowadays, wanted it follows a Leyden jar to build for the purpose, humans a [ göttliche Kraft ] the Ungeweihte to kill immediately can to lead before eyes or to  pretend.

The charge of the federal drawer with atmospheric electricity in the all-holiest was obtained by many columns and golden points. In addition, the whole temple was, as from the description hervorgehl, provided with hundreds of gilded points, by presenting gold on zedern and acacia wood bars.


The fact that here really electrical discharges took place can do out following in 2. Book of the Chronicles, Chap.7, verse 3, described place to be taken DAuch saw falling down all children Israel the fire and the glory of the gentleman over the house, and fell to their knees, with the face to the earth and prayed on and thanked the sir, it good-naturedly are eternal and its mercy lich last. “People saw here the impact of lightning into the lightning conductor established on the temple. DI1ss the collection and Aufbewl1hrung of the atmospheric

Electricity much gefäh " to be rlich could, if someone did not understand with the federal drawer to deal, read 'we further in the 3. Book Moses, chapter 10, where the sons Aarons, Nl1dl1b and Ahibu wanted to bring, d~m Mr. Freudenfeuer, what the Mr. them not ordered hatteWir to read that a fire proceeded from the gentleman and it verzehrte, so that they died before the gentleman.

From everything it is evident that Moses were and its contemporaries the first connoisseurs and Ausnutzer of the atmospheric electricity. Were not natural them, how us, which admits to electrical laws separate only the effects of these mystischen Kraft. These features are probable the culturally more highly standing Egyptians even already admit been, and Moses may have bring along its knowledge of the priests from Egypt.

From this time to the attempts Frl1nklins with BJitz the production of atmospheric electricity made only small progress for arresters and Rimans attempts. With the study of the meteorology the large interest in the atmospheric electricity was again excited, and in the last 30 years several times the thought stepped to light to use it. Which was already done in this regard by other researchers, I try to describe in the connection hieran briefly, by lighting up this question I1m of best patents spent through in former times.

The first patent, that according to indication German realm Reich office, is that is given D.R.P. No. 98180 of the t9. January 1897. Inventor: Dr. Heinrich Rudolph in Stc Goarshausen A. RH. The Patentl1nspruch reads: Your by a kite chain balloon carried, from two steel tubes and many vertically stretched fine wires manufactured, large and nevertheless extraordinarily light net for the collection of atmospheric electricity together with for installing and for the acceptance of this net, occupied with needles I'rüher announced patents and their evaluation.


necessary mechanism, consisting of a number of posts with ever two axle camps and some small electric motors. “


Net for collecting atmospheric electricity.

The subject of available invention forms, with approximately 3.6 million needles an occupied, ungefäh~ 9 hectars large and net which can be held by a kite chain balloon in 1000~2000 rn heavy against 700 kg for height for accumulating atmospheric electricity together with the mechanisms erforderiichen for isolated derivative For the clarification of the state of affairs is emphasized that those.

For the clarification of the state of affairs is emphasized that those Franklin attempts the possibility of the derivative of atmospheric electricity for the earth long did that it concerns however with the voriiegenden invention particularly around the described mechanism, such, which suggests a commercially usable amount of energy of the derived atmospheric electricity. Which concerns the aids to the commercial utilization of the net described in being inferior, then is referred to the patent No. 98288 standing with available article in closest Zusammenhange. In the enclosed design a such net is together with the kite chain balloon in Fig. 1 in front view represented, Fig. a side view shows 2, while the Fig. 3-5 details represent.

A such net N (Fig. 1) can be manufactured by means of two ungerahr 300 rn long casting steel tubes R R, by 1 mm of wall thickness and 2 cm diameters, which will receive the same by Ineinanderschieben of individual pipes from production length and fastening by small steel pins with screwed on safeguard panels. These pipes are to form the two horizontal sides of the square net, between which about 1200 vertical bronze wires of 300 are to be stretched rn length and 0.04 qmm cross section in distances of 0,25 rn. Since rn much purifies the thin wires in distances of 0,1 and length sharpens needles of 1 cm carry must, then they are wound meanwhile before slowly on Rol) EN and the needles with the help of a springy eye open at their lower end are touched down. The eye must selbs (understandably the wire size so adapted to be that it wedges deQ wire and that the needles sit sufficient firmly. Also rolling up must happen sufficient loosely, so that the put on needles do not break. The main difficulty such a square network of 300 rn side length offers an installing and a removing the same, the whatever latter in Ausnahmerallen becomes necessary - can. Is necessary for it a number of man-high posts (p), in


Rn lineally and all two axle camps I are one behind the other set up to distances from 7 to 8 possess (Fig. 3). Built up on the same the two 300 rn are enough for Slahlrohre R R, and provided with the necessary hooks, by lelztere safeguard panels small by boreholes of the pipes put, and become screwed on!? n. Whereupon wires are to be stretched from Pfoslen to posts, on which the necessary number of roles with the needle-occupied bronze wires is. The ends of the same are raised to the hooks a Slahlrohres geknlipfl and the latter by the Fesselballon, which is to carry the net, so that the bronze wires of the roles complete themselves. So that the dlinne steel tube no bend experience, it is carried by 40 Gussslahldrähten, which hang on the hook for the chain cable and branch out toward their lower end three-way, so that they can be befesligt in distances of approximately 2.5 rn at the mentioned pipe. Dieseiben are in their length like that abzugleicheil that they form approximately an equal-leg triangle of 250 rn for height, whose basis is the pipe carried by them also they need to have only 1 qmm cross section against the center, during toward the ends of the pipe a Quersc--hnitt of 2 qmm necessarily isl.

If the needle-occupied bronze wires are completed, then they become to the zweile steel tube geknüpfl. After 31 bronze wires of 0,13 qmm Querschnilt without NadelQ, further on the opposite side of this pipe in distances of 10 rn, are beftlstigt for the derivative of the Elektrizilät, the net so because is lifted, until about 1000 rn the chain cable by the hoist of an anchor car it is completed, on which to the cable it fastens the bronze wires jointly but becomes only so loosely strained that the net down-hangs almost vertically, with its surface senkrechI the Windrichlung. If the net is to be removed again, then approximately in reverse way, only with the difference that thereby small electric motors at each second post step into activity, those will proceed by wheels with a removable Cutout, by which they can be touched down easily on the lower pipe, the latter in revolution to shift and the needle-occupied wires to the same to complete.

It can occur however the case that for the acceptance of the net in this way sufficient Zeil does not remain, if approaching storm with a larger wind force than 25 rn the rapid salvage of the Fesselballons behind a wind protection with the help of, the electrically operated Anke running on rails " rwagens makes advisable. Then \ ias net on a sufficient even must Place easily on the ground to be established,


similarly as one things materials in folds puts, then it could be lifted later again intact into air.

In order to be able to notice also a large wind force in 1000 to 2000 rn height with relative peace at the soil, a Federdynamometer put onable in any place without detachment of the chain cable must steadily the tension of the latter anteigen. If such a case of strong upper wind arises, then the bare short binding is naturally already sufficient to the safety device of the balloon and net

Which concerns the potential of the atmospheric electricity, then a potential gradient of 150 V for I is rn as always available to regard after numerous observations. For 1500 rn height would result in that 225000 V. If one wants to charge a battery with the received river from 20000 one behind the other switched accumulators, then it requires a charging voltage of 45-50000 V, for which straight still the isolation can be accomplished. From it a voltage drop of 175000 V in the environment of the net, which after the observations over the conductivity of air with grösserern potential gradient a sufficient river secures, results particularly due to the 3.6 million of fine points of the net and the constant continuation of the unloading air layers from the wind. So that the electricity collected by the net can be derived now in addition, isolated, about 100 rn a long silk rope T by sixfold security, which is protected from wetness by an india rubber casing, must be switched on, into the chain cable F, and, be led the electricity by a special cable G of 5 qmm for casting steel cross section and 2 qmm copper soul downward below the place, where the bronze wires are fastened to the chain cable.

While now the cable G after a well embodied, hollow iron mast M, is the chain cable leads to the electrically operated hoist Weines of anchor car fastened, which, according to kind the mobile crane with swivelling upper rack, provides jib and counterweight, on a circular rail gel ice with approximately 20 rn radius around the mentioned hollow mast to move can, so that it is able to follow each change of the wind direction. The jib of the anchor car serves to keep the lower horizontal part so high the Seilkurve described by the Fesselballon over that ground that it does not schJeift.

It is necessary that cables and chain cables are from each other distant in air always far for enough, in order to prevent an upper jumping of the high voltage stream. That is possible by a tauter tension of the easier Lejtungska~~ls. DeshaJb goes this, after it by a slip ring G carried by e1nem Olisolator is led, by an isolating india rubber pipe, by about 10 rn high mast down to a hand winch w present under oil, whose drum provided with steel axle is formed by porcelain or ebonite, so that one can with each change of the length of the chain cable for the case of zero wind or storm also the cable accordingly stop and again stretch

From the hollow mast M out the line goes underground through one. Channel up oil insulators under the gel ice for the anchor car away and then as high voltage air line after the battery station, which can be established also for several balloon stations together.

There a double battery of 20000 small accumulators each is to be set up, from which always a battery delivers river, while the other one is loaded. For this purpose one must be able to switch everyone one behind the other into approximately 300 groups at will neben¬ and. The accumulators must rest by groups on racks, which are carried by oil insulators.

From apparatuses are on a battery station except usual flat TAP-ready necessarily:

# Erdschtuss with simultaneous interruption of the line to Battery.

# Adjustable spark gap as Nebenstromkreis with ground fault to the announcement of interruptions.

# fuses for the case of Kurzschi1uss of the battery.

# Ammeter.

# Pendulum electroscopes.

# Electrostatic one dares to the innocuous making of line interruptions, by the same with exceed more eiper certain tension ground fault one manufactures and by a electromagnet in the ground conductor the line to the battery one interrupts. {In Fig. 4 is the electrostatic dare omitted.)

# automatic commutator (Fig. 5) for the charging current, be standing from electromagnets (omitted in the design), which brings two levers with isolated connection to the

high voltage air line and to the earth with Poland the battery depending upon current direction in or to other sequence in connection.

The last device is particularly important for the utilization of the extraordinary, but sign after rapidly changing electrical tensions of the thunderstorm and heap clouds, that large Konduk gates and condensers of the atmospheric electricity.

By pie 3.6 million points of the net thereby the plant appears secured against each destructive spark discharge All apparatuses except 2, 4 " and 5 must have contacts from platinum and for preventing of sparking and fusion under oil are. All work on the high voltage transmission line before by means of laliger ebonite seaweeds ground fault is made, whereby for preventing of short-circuit the line must be interrupted at the same time to the battery thus the tension sinks on zero. On the balloon stations are necessary: the apparatuses I, 4, 5 and 6, the latters however without dare and only with electromagnet in that Ground conductor to the Unterbl echung (Fig.4). The Schienerigeleise must on. the ground conductor of the balloon station put its, füi' the case that once the cable puts over the anchor car or the chain cable affected.

If one takes now managing patent application under the magnifying glass of the criticism, then it must be stated that the Erfindungsgedanke for the following reasons cannot be lebensflihig:

# The balloons must possess very large volume, since they are to carry d1e of large heavy nets and the strong rope. The latters must be strong, so that they are not torn up by the storm.

# The expansion of such a plant over large surfaces - z. B. IQO qkm - is therefore: A) commercially impossible, because a great many balloons of this kind were needed, which would be enormously expensive, and B) practically not executably, because one cannot secure such large balloons in large heights sufficient before storm also the same, there made of things, ground very fast leaky. From it large dangers for humans, the result if such a balloon tear off and from leak from on earth fall, became a Kurzschussnt stand, the tremendous disaster, which death of many humans could entail.

For above reasons already this patent is not usable nevertheless is it interesting because of the attempt, which so collected electricity to the charge of a double battery of over 20000 small accumulators, from which the energy delivers, while the other one is loaded. Such a system would be the most ideal solution of the Transforming of atmospheric electricity into low tension usable for the technology. Because of the isolation difficulties it is however unfortunately impossible to load 20000 elements with approximately 50000 V 1 more user that the initial costs of the 40000 elements would be too expensive, completely apart from the fact that the maintenance of these batteries do not only require many people, but also with large danger for the supervision personnel it would be connected.

He same wants to obtain by the following patent claims:

# procedures for the Nutzbarinachung of Atmospheric electricity, thereby characterized that the same by means of a be¬wegten, by a g~eignete HeizqueJ] e of catching body heated up it is caught and trans¬formiert by means of a rheostatischen machine, how to the charge of accumulators the Electricity thereby on constant Spal! nung to be held that the rheostatische Machine or a number of their plates is connected with a charge measurer (electrometer), that, as soon as dte rheostatische machine was loaded on a certain potential, knows by the excursion of its mobile part a contact closes, whereby, under switching of a relay, an electromagnet is perhaps brought to responding, the change-over of the rheostatischen machine effectuation

# Device for the execution of the procedure, consisting of a double-walled LuftbaJ] on (1, ge¬kennzeichneten in requirement 1., 2), which by a MetaJ] net provided with needles is covered and when the Auf¬ and descending by tiltable shovels (9) in revolution one shifts, from a Hejz¬rohr (12), which is through tubes with upper and lower parts of the area (II), formed by the Dop~elwänden of the balloon, connected, aus' mjt the wire net in leading Ver¬bindung standing ball bearing (14), which with the taps des¬seiben leading connected cable (13), that with the KoJ] ek¬tor (17) provided winch (16) and the rheostatischen machine (18).

3. During the device characterized in requirement

2. the application of a Electromagnet, which is excited by a charge measurer (Elektro¬meter), connected with the rheostatischen machine, to the change-over of the rheostatischen machine, as soon as the potential achieved the same in-certain measure ".

Patent specification:Procedure and device for catching atmospheric electricity

Available invention trilft a procedure and a device for catching and deriving atmospheric Electricity, which make it possible, larger quantities of the same in usable: to receive it form.

The Erfindungsgedanke is based on your theory of the atmospheric electricity, after the the same by the condensation of


One forms for water vapours. According to this theory now the water droplets floating in the air layers are to be regarded as carriers of the electricity, and a rational system of the derivative of the atmospheric electricity must the same now of the water droplets ab¬leiten. This is way-reached after available invention on the following

With pointed needles of provided catching bodies of mög lchst large surface becomes into higher air-laminated? moved, however by a suitable heating device continual warms up. By the heat water droplets become! dey the catching bodies directly surrounded, the capacity the same evaporates decreases aJI¬mählich, and thus the tension of the charge rises.

It is now easy evidently that the whole charge of the droplets, as soon as the same evaporated, on which catching body Über¬gehen becomes, from which it be derived can. U m however the evaporated and their charge robbed droplets by new and loaded to replace, becomes the catching body the surrounding enclosed design schematically represented, in Pig. 6 and 7 by the opinion and the cut of the catching balloon. Pig. the deriving device, Pig.9 the regulation device, pi shows 8! (. 10 and II a shovel in their two positions, Pig. 12 and 13 the circuit way of the rheostatischen machine in their two air in relative motion shifts. A remark example of the invention article is up positions.

The pre-adjust consists of a double-walled balloon I, 2, the light wire nets, favourably from aluminum wire, occupied with one with needles, covered is. The balloon carries also the net 3, on which the ring 4 made from firm, but light material (wood, pipe etc.) is fastened. The latter carries the basket 6 by means of the cords 5. In the level of the ring 4 still the ring 7, that is by those easily swivelling gelagenen shovels (9) spread and by dle cords 8 in its position held w! about SI haufeln of covered framework with light material, whose turn in both directions is limited by the notices 10, consists. The shovels form with the vertical one appropriately an angle from 60 to 70 degrees. All wire nets, cords, rings and shovels can be covered? with small Metallna'deln, which are connected among themselves leading. Of the area II fühn of the deepest point the pipe 26, formed by dje Doppel¬wände of the balloon, too, which in the 'basket 6 untergebrach1en coiled tube 12, which is again with your in the upper Tei, 1 of the intermediate area II connected to flowing pipe 13. The coiled tube: becomes by means of a suitable heating source it heats up whereby between the Dappelwänden of the balloon continual warm gases vein air flow rotates.

Under the basket with the wire nets leiiend ver¬bundene ball bearings 14 are attached, its tap with sorgi: iltig isolated, easy and sufficient is connected for firm cables 15 leading.

On the surface of the earth the hoist 16 (Fig.6) is, by means of which the balloon can be down-pulled and brought to the rise, as soon as the internal balloon with illuminating gas or hydrogen is gefüljt.

With the increase of the balloon the carried out over liquid work can be stored in any accumulator and be made usable with the Niederziehen of the balloon. The end of the cable core is at one at the axle of the hoist isoJiert attached collector firmly, from which the electricity is derived by means of a sliding contact. Collecting the electricity takes place by means of the fact that the balloon is down-moved by means of the hoist continual up and.

With this movement the balloon receives a turn, which will not change its sense by the shovels 9, since during the transition of the rise to sinking the balloon or turned around the shovels are tilted by air resistance, and therefore the balloon the turning movement in the same sense to give. In order to avoid here a turn of the cable, the ball bearing 14 is intended. The fact that the turn of the balloon takes place with on and descending in the same direction illuminates from the following.

The shovels 9 are easily swivelling, whereby the axis of rotation does not fall into the center line the same. Hierdl1rch places itself the shovel with the downward course of the balloon in in Fig. 10 drawn position, and der' balloon is from right to left turned. During the upward course the shovel tilts, b it the lower notice 10 limited (Fig. I). IE one sees, takes place the drive from above after air flow arranged downward again from left to right, the balloon can thus its direction of rotation maintained. By this up and Niederbewegen and tricks of the balloon the purpose that the same with as much as possible water particles floating in air into contact comes, is reached.

Of collector rings 17 derived electricity nJn a too high and much too much a changing tension possesses, in order to be able to be veaertet directly. Since one maintains accumulators too ladan and only the easily adjustable river with an irregular Elektrizitätsquelle first the same further used, then one must to the shop of the accumulators the electricity on more constant, derived from the collector 17, stretches! to receive lng. search and those


Tension also into belleutend a lower transform. Since one has to do it however in this Fa1le with a direct current, then usual transformers can not be used for this purpose. In addition the Electricity in this case possesses a much to large tension, so that when using common transformers the largest part of the collected electricity would come again into loss. 'The only applicable method is for this purpose the transformation by means of the planning ashes rheostaischen machine, by this high-tension electricity almost completely without loss transforj11iert will can. Thereby the question of the transformation would be solved only the preservation of the constant tension remains for more. This is reached in the following way:

Rheostatische machine 18 or only one part of the plates stands for the latter change-over of the rheostatischen machine with any charge measurer (electrometer) in connection, whose mobile part closes one, contact, what is caused, how the same unloaded. The potential sinks, and the ElektromeIer takes its initial position, whereby the Slrom umschailung the causative Elektromagnelen becomes interrupted and the P'atten of the rheoslatischen machine tension geschaltel. Then now to the erneulen charge ferlig and is again unloaded with the beslimmten tension. This play repeats itself continual, so long the apparatus in the enterprise stehl.

To the easier understanding the pattern of the rheoslatischen machine is indicated. Fig. the load position shows 12. The panel 42 is connected with the Fesselballon, while the last panel is led to the earth. Fig. the unloading position shows 13. In Fig. the rheostalische machine is drawn 8 in the load position, and that simplicity half is not the connection of the panel of 42 with that contacts 17 gezeichnt just like also the contacts for the unloading position (Fig. 13) is omitted.

With the elektrostalischen Schaltapparat' (Fig. 9) combined effect of the mechanism is the following:

The contact roller 27 (Fig. ) always one brings to 9 by the feather/spring 37 into the load position. In addition axle a Electromagnet 35 is gekeilt, and at the rack the firm magnet 36 attached on d1e. If now the electromagnet 35 is energized, it turns the contact roller under Überwindung of the spring action into the Enlladestellung. Damil the excitation 'umschallende? Electromagnets selbs, ttälig with a certain tension take place, is a elektrostalischer switch (Fig.9) indicate-indicating eight.

That mil the earth connected voucher of the letzlen or the voucher of any other condenser is not with the balls 29 and 32 connected. If now into the Ladestellung¬ the potential rises, then the balls push off each other more and more, until the mobile ball 32 provided with the fork 33 dips into two Queck¬silbernäpfchen and thus the river exciting from the battery 3 supplied and the swivelling electromagnets 35 closes or this current conclusion by means of relays cause lets.

One can regulate the amount of the tension, with which this current conclusion and thus the unloading of the rheostatischen machine take place, mittel~ the adjustable weights 38 and 39. The apparatus is provided to the protection with the glass fall 40. Within the fall also one is with Chlorkalzium gefUIlte bowl 41.

As long as the tension at the balls 29 and 32 remains constant, the outflow, concomitantly the excitation of the magnet continues the accumulators receive the utilizable stream. If the condensers delivered their charge, repulsive Kraft of the balls become smaller, with which the Quecksilberkontakt is interrupted, those. Excitation electromagnets stops and the feather/spring 37 D! e contact roller back into the load position brings, on which the play of neuern can begin. At larger electric charges which can be derived two rheostatische machines can work abaechselnd, so that, while the one will unload, which can be loaded others. It is now easily evident that, if the capacity of the rheostatischen machine is not changed switching will always take place via the electrometer with the same potential of the rheostatischen machine " and the number of plates, thus the transformation relationship the same remains there, then also the current draws dieseIbe tension led from the rheostatischen machine will have.

As long as the tension at the balls 29 and 32 remains constant, the outflow, concomitantly the excitation of the magnet continues the accumulators receive the utilizable stream. If the condensers delivered their charge, repulsive Kraft of the balls become smaller, with which the Quecksilberkontakt is interrupted, those. Excitation electromagnets stops and the feather/spring 37 D! e contact roller back into the load position brings, on which the play of neuern can begin. At larger Elek¬trizitätsmengen which can be derived two rheostatische machines can work ab~echselnd, so that, while the one will unload, which can be loaded others. It is now easily evident that, if the capacity of the rheostatischen machine is not changed switching will always take place via the electrometer with the same potential of the rheo¬statischen machine " and the number of plates, thus the transformation relationship the same remains there, then also the current draws dieseIbe tension led from the rheostatischen machine will have.

By the irregularities of the Elektrizitätsquelle the period, in which the siromstösse follows one another, is changed this does not.hat however, as soon as now the tension remains constant, on shop of the accumulators harmful influence. The river led from the rheostatischen machine can be ver¬wendet at times, where it is sufficient constant, directly with evasion of the accumulators. 24 and 25 is the wring leads, to-consumption-places either directly or to storage battery leading.“


Execution of the Erhilzung in practice, and it is at all questionable whether the desired result is to be obtained thereby in addition are the large balloons from things with heavy metal nets and - sharpen to and for itself a thing offering no prospects.

In the further the American patent is 1014719 from 16. January 1912 inventors: Walter L. Pennock, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania mentions. The patent claim reads in the translation about follows dermasseri: The patent protection becomes geforden for a collecting tank for electrical charges, which consists of a number of carriers and a metal net, which are held in such a way by these carriers that it is appropriate for particular the carrier mentioned above, which furthermore anchor devices possesses in one level and in approximately even distance, from everyone, which with gemein¬samen points after everyone the carrier mentioned goes out, which furthermore a device, the carriers in their normal position possesses to hold, and in addition a device attached between everyone of the mentioned carriers and the net, which permits each carrier to adapt fast and independently each changes of the air flow.

Also after this patent one lets balloons from silk and such materials, which carry metallic collecting TZE, ascend into air. As is shown by the patent claim, the patent protection sought for the kind of the execution of the balloon herab¬hängenden leader. Because of this small difference of the previous patents I refrain from a more exact explanation.

Would last be that D.R.P. 248580 of the 22.Juni 1912 Inventor: Heinrich Johannsen, Luebeck to state. its patent claim reads as follows: . Procedure for catching Luftelektrizilät by means of senk¬rechter or diagonal leaders, thereby ge marks that into the line a high-tension power source is switched on, for the purpose, the point resistance to lower. “ Patent specification. . Procedure for catching atmospheric electricity by means of more perpendicular or diagonal leaders.


Further nothing is well-known over the atmospheric electricity, apart from the fact, .dass in newspapers publications of shining successes of an inventor appear here and there, the one new invention to the Nutzbarmar: hung of atmospheric electricity to have ago made wants and for these purposes money searches.

Tried one, with these people in connection to set, then always turned out that either large sums had to be paid before, in order at all only something details too experienced, or the invention always existed in gleir: hen thoughts: A balloon from silk was suggested, for which a net with many needles should carry. In which way the Anlj! ge before lightning or overvoltage to be g~schützt or like the transformation of the Electricity in a technically useful form as well as their adjustment be made should, of it knew itself the gentlemen neither one seriously thought conception out to make, still for it proofs furnish.

From above-said it follows clearly that the attempts to win atmospheric electricity thereby that air balloons rise as collecting tanks are left, those on a non-metallic envelope of the ballon --herein all inventors agree - a metallic Ergebnie of the preliminary tests


Sammel1: 1etz carried, to the goal to lead could not. The balloon had to large loads to carry and received therefore to large extent. Large attack regions, so that surely tearing the whole collecting TZE was to be foreseen had storm, Regenund other atmospheric influences, without talking about the fact to that such large envelopes of the balloon lost dauarnd large quantities gas by diffusion. Thus its use and Rentabllitat were impossible, even if a collection of atmospheric electricity möglfch seems to in this way actually be.

The second error of the past attempts was that all inventors the atmospheric Electricity eusserst directly as statisihen direct current of high tension and Ieiner Stromsterke to use wanted. Nearly insurmountable difficulties of the isolation and adjustment face this application. Procedures, which permit, this kind Electricity into another, less gerährliche form, which was not technically usable commodity, too yerwandeln, yet well-known, which had everything only is found.

All this had to be found only.

Hauptgrllnde of the blherlgen failures

The principal reasons of the past failures can in the following general points to be summarized:

All inventors thought for attaching heavy metallic nets on individual air balloons from nonconductive, tear upable and the gas letting through materials as collecting tanks.

No means had been used, in order to increase the ionization of the collection coefficients of the collector nets by artificial means (radioactive substances, photoelectrically working substances, devices for the education of ultraviolet jets etc.).

No inventor has an attempt with balloon collecting tanks made from sheet metal.

such metallic balloon collecting tanks however rolgende important possess and aur other way not advantages which can be reached: aluminium the metallic coverings is impenetrably for helium and Wasserstoff' them places gJeichzeitig Erosse metallic, weather remainders of Collector surfaces.

Radioactive means etc. can be easily attached inside or outside, whereby the ionization and thus also the collected quantity of the atmospheric electricity is substantially increased.

Such balloon collecting tanks made of light alloy do not need to be large, since they must carry Dur their own small weight and that of the wring lead.

The whole system offers therefore storm and wind w~nig to attack regions and becomes resistant and stable.

One can lift and lower balloon easily by a hoist, So that all repairs, Nachrüllen etc., safely wlhrend the work are auaführbar.


4. No inventor recognized importance and meaning of an antenna collecting tank net from several individual collecting tanks, which are connected among themselves by electrical conductor, spread over the earth in air.

5. No inventor recognized the importance of the use such high capacities for these purposes until today as means for the increase of the capacity used with production of atmospheric electricity condenser batteries, whose correct engagement conditions aus¬gearbeitet, as well as at all. (Consequence of the fact is that to today only extremely small electric charges and these in a practically useless type of current were available.)

6. All inventors were always anxious to convert the collected static electricity of air directly into mechanical energy which encountered evenly insurmountable difficulties.

7. So far no devices were used or intended against overvoltages, lightning danger etc. by the inventors. Gleichfalls was possible an adjustment of such an energy in no way. It is impossible to use the atmospheric electricity as long as the obstacles given after 1 to 7 are not eliminated.

The collection of the atmospheric Electricity can with the comparison of the...  also on hot summer days, in a boiler, its ifeen iitee: Surface the sunbeams is evenly suspended, the water of the suns to energy-to cooking bring, although the sun mix also large warmth delivers.

If one would concentrate those sunbeams however by large lenses, which must be substantially larger than the boiler surface, on essel, then one could bring the water not only to cooking, but even to evaporation. Without collection of the jets the Wärmedichte is not sufficient on given square a surface for heating.

The same applies in similar sense also to the atmospheric electricity. If one sets up only a Antenna, then only those parts of the atmospheric electricity are tightened, which are in the proximity of the antenna. Since the density and movement speed of the electrically charged particles of the Atmosphere are only small however, then also the induced tension will be in the antenna wire kJein and mit¬hin also the amperage.

The ring or netlike arranged, strongly ionizing collecting systems in accordance with available invention permit however to collect larger electric charges there it electrically charged particles over a surface of 1, 10, to tighten 100 or more qis fortunes. Must rate however here a number of other conditions considered, which are to be described on the basis designs later more near.

The collection of the atmospheric electricity by means of large antenna system has the comparison example mentioned above (collection of the solarly power) opposite the following two advantages, which understood tons use so far nobody recognized and: 1. the application of large collecting surfaces (the individually lenses and/or mirror surfaces, which find during utilization OF solarly heat to application, one can emergency as make large, as the collecting system) 2. the large capacity of the collecting apparatuses for the atmospheric electricity (by the lenses or hollow mirrors one can affect emergency as large of surfaces, as with the antenna system).

If one counts the other difficulties, which the utilization of the solar power in the way, like changes of the seasons, change of the position of the sun to the Zenith, still in addition, then it results that conditions for the collection of atmospheric electricity lie substantially more favorably. The latter is also not to those Application of compact collecting surfaces or at certain locations or such restrictions binds. It supports itself rather by arbitrary ring or netlike arranged wire communication, which are carried for set up strongly ionizing collecting antennas in arbitrary headroom of, ground of in even distances been suitable and these among themselves to connect.

The openings such shape of set up rings or nets know all the the vertical antennas are more largely its, the higher, since the whole line delivers neither warmth nor light shade. The static electricity is continued to store owing to its special characteristics by condenser effect in the antenna wire, and it is possible to distribute it evenly by g~eignete engagements of special condenser batteries for Jn the net and to receive kolossale charge capacities in this way, for which there is no analogy with the collection of the solar power.

For aforementioned reasons it can be counted on the fact that available procedure the production and Nutzb!}rmachung the atmospheric electricity really on a cheap and a comfortable Way will make possible. A lack, which adhered to all past inventions, was that that always one tried to transfer the electricity immediately into mechanical. Even if it e.g. succeeded to design an electrostatic generator from large strength to then would be nevertheless its application because of that


Difficulties of the saftey, as well as the isolation of the axles and other parts not possibly. Such uncommonly large tensions would be possible that short-circuit and spark copy could not be avoided. Likewise it is impossible, such large [unknown] to switch off (regate safely and or adjust for even load to feed engines with high-tension rivers foreseen from manifold other obstacles, which forbid at all. After available invention the atmospheric electricity becomes [unknown] of the new [unknown] into mecamsce nergle umgewan et, which differentiated EN aupt palnzips from the past inventions on this areas forms, [unknown], those separate the static electricity by antenna lines in more mospärlscher. Electricity in the form of direct current of very high tension and small amperage [unknown] runs, converted into electro-dynamic oscillation [unknown] energy of high Wechselzahl. Thereby many advantages it is enough and eliminated all disadvantages.

The electro-dynamic oscillation energy formed in closed, oszillatorischen electric circuits produces built machine in another electric circuit, e.g. in one been suitable, by resonance:. effect electromagnetic waves of desired size and mechanical effect. Furthermore the resonance effect of such rivers permits, , in simple and comfortable way a starting, the adjustment and the disconnection of such machines to cause, this takes place simply by means of tendency and/or detuning of the resonance in the transformer circle and the river flowing in the coil of the machine. Such rivers, except for engine enterprise, are further f Urverschiedene other areas derTech.nik directly zuyerwenden, e.g. : Lighting, production of warmth and Elektroche I1ie.

In addition one knows with such rivers a set of Apparatuses without direct firm current inlet, completely apart from the possibility, they feed f Ur wireless telegraphy and telephone to use. In practice large difficulties were to be overcome, because it was not well-known, how one should design such large machines, and how the electromagnetic oscillations necessary for the supply could be adjusted by so high Wechselzahl.

In the following a specification is to be given, how these questions were solved. In Fig. a simple pattern is represented 14 for the transformation of static electricity into dynamic energy of high frequency. For clarity of the design is calibrates an air antenna, but a lnfluenzmaschine accepted. 13 and 14 ssind collection combs .


the static electricity the lnfluepzmaschine. 7 and 8 is spark discharge contacts, 6 and 5 switched on condensers, 9 switched on inductive primary coil, 11 and 12 line ends of the secondary winding 10. If the disk of the static electrostatic generator is set by a mechanical Kraft in turn, then comb collects the positive, the A! 1dere the negative electricity.

The allocations of the condensers 5 and 6 are so long loaded, until the screen end becomes so large Spannungserhöhung that the spark gap will pierce 7 to 8. Since over spark gap 7 and 8, over condensers 6 and 5 and inductive resisted themselves 9 a closed electric circuit forms, so entsteheQ, as well-known, into this circles electromagnetic oscillations.

High Wechselzahl

The produced high-swinging rivers in primary circles induce rivers with the same frequency, jedoce of already completely electromagnetic nature in the secondary circle. The electromagnetic oscillations will maintain by new charges of the static electricity. If the number of turns of the primary and Sekundärkreises stands to each other in correct relation, which one can compute with correct application of the resonance coefficients (capacity, inductance and resistance), then one can convert the rivers of the primary circle with high tension in such arbitrarily low tension and higher amperage.

If oscillation unloadings become weaker in primary circles or to diminish completely, begin more wiedrer the charge of the condensers with static electricity, until the spark gap will again pierce. All of this repeats itself so long, when of the static machine electricity is produced by supply of mechanical energy. It is not to be maintained that this application of the static machine and the transformation of the produced electricity do not admit according to above pattern in former times were such remarks were described already often applied and. It is stressed only priority on the fact that in this invention first these.

Experimental assembly for the production of atmospheric electricity for practical purposes brought in application and that the machines (engines), necessary for such rivers, were designed, as well as their circuit and adjustment patterns. By this invention alone the possibility is given to make really atmospheric electricity energy source usable for the technology as practically comfortable 'without by the plant mortal danger for those people exists. It is further only by transforming the static atmospheric electricity been into electromagnetic oscillations possible, the difficulties of the isolation, the building construction, the adjustment, to become starting and switching gentleman off.

From Fig. is evident to 15, how the arrangement for production and transforming of the atmospheric electricity, shown in pattern 14, can be used. Particularly emphasized sei' the main difference between these and other earlier inventions. It consists of it that two parallel spark gaps are an¬gewendet, from which the one as work distance (7) and the other one for the safety device against overvoltages serves.

The latter consists of several individual Funkenstrecken with larger total distance than the work distance, arranged in series connection, and is bridged with very small capacities (aluminium, bl, Cl), which has the purpose to make the even sparking possible in the safeguard distance Continues to mean in Fig. 15 A an air antenna for the collection of atmospheric electricity (specification follows still), 13 connection of the safeguard spark gap with the earth, 5 and 6 condensers, 9 primary coil.

If now by antenna A the positive, atmospheric electricity is anxious with the negative charge of the earth to adjust, then the Luftzwischenraum between the spark gaps prevents itself this reconciliation. How evidently from the design, the resistance of the spark gap is 7 lower than with that! , ndern spark gap, the spark gaps switched from three into series exists and consequently one three times larger air intermediate distance to overcome has. , Thus, as long as the resistance of the spark gap does not become 7 Überlastet, unloadings take place only concerning this.

However if the tension increases by any influences so much that it could become dangerous for the allocation of the condensers 5 and 6 or for the isolation of the windings 9 and 10, then a non-inductive unloading takes place to the earth when correct regulating the resistance of the second spark gap by means of these, without the machine is endangered. ühne this second parallel arranged spark gap also larger resistance than the work spark gap is it possible to collect and make large quantities of electricity usable safely. In Fig. the simplest is selected 1,5 represented pattern and only, in order to explain the basic principle. For practice ~ind more complicated patterns necessarily, from those the most important for usevdifferent intended purposes are prepared and in the following to be described.

Explanation of the principle of the transformation electromagnet punch oscillations into meehanlsche energy

The impact of the closed oscillation circles, consisting of spark gap 1 and two condensers 5 and 6, the primary coil 9, like also the secondary winding 10, is exactly the same, as described 14 for pattern. Are further in Fig. 15 schematically two motor types represented, which serve high Wechselzahl for the transformation of electromagnetic oscillations received from static electricity into mechanical energy.

Tesla Engines

Also on that areas of the high-swinging rivers were to be solved difficult questions. So far only the engine system was Tesla admits (schematically in Fig. to 15 by 16 and 17 represented), on the features of the Hysteresis is based. The engine is compound from iron pins and metallic disks. If on the same electromagnetic oscillations of high Wechselzahl influence, a rotary movement is produced. The description of this pattern serves only for the explanation of the basic principle it does not have however in the execution of large machines any practical interest because of the impossibility of the adjustment and because of the low effectiveness

Resonant Engines

According to available invention all are overcome these difficulties by construction of a machine, which is applicable for elektro¬magnetische energy high change number of more or less absorbed nature. Mg. the first form of a such machine shows 15. The difference between the principle of the Bau'es of these engines opposite the used so far consists of the fact that the engine contains keide magnets and not alone on the principle is based to the magnetic induction (like all current engines and also the Tesla engines), but on combination of the pure static induction with the electromagnetic in the static field. Since the engine is intended for high-swinging rivers, then must be as iron-free as possible er' and manufactured made of well leading metal. It was now shown that for the supply of such engines without magnet metal rivers of more or less absorbed N cannot only be used atur, to switch off but that also due to their special characteristics opposite electromagnetic reesonance features the possibility is given, the engines simply and safely in and and to adjust. These motor types can be called about this resonance engines. In Pig. 15 attached engine consists in his main parts of individual oscillation circles briefly closed in itself. The electromagnetic oscillation poles both the stator (un¬beweglicher part of the engine) and the rotor (mobile part of the engine) are radially embedded or fastened in a suitable firm insulator. Sämlliche of oscillation circles become from the Hauplstromleitung of a eleklromagnetischen source of oscillation suitable frequency and more or less absorbed nature gespelsl. Everyone such oscillatory circuit exists for itself of a closed oscillation circle, given by self induction, Kapazitäl and Ohm's resistance. From it results:

#) a Mögiichkeit to operate also with electromagnetic “oscillations of high Wechselzahl engines of arbitrarily high horse power since a sufficient number of such oscillation circles can be planned parallel in the engine

#) a possibility of designing for the enterprise with eleklromagnetischen oscillations of high Wechselzahl also asynchronously working engines (for similar purposes, for those the current synchronous engines for usual alternating currents or. Three-phase alternating current to be used)

#) a possibility of being able to count not only on a desired number of horse power in advance to obtain but also a widerslandsiähige and a simply executable construction form

#) an ideal Ein and elimination and an adjustment of such Moloren by change of the resonance i.e. by change of the capacity or the

self induction coefficient of the energizing current the more or less good resonance of the individual oscillation circles in relation to the main stream is destroyed or manufactured.

Determined by attempts that the same machine works accordingly differently, ever more or less the mechanical components with their natural oscillations of the natural oscillations of the energizing current to differ. After a set of attempts the engine received in Fig. 15 drawn, simplified execution form. By the wring leads (14 and 15) the engine from the source of the electromagnetic Schwjngungen is fed by high Wechselzahl.

The wring leads are with the secondary transformer 10 over two condensers - A and 6a connected. In certain cases the condenser batteries ä and 6a can be replaced by a parallel switched battery 18 (dots drawn). The stator can be designed in different way. From the stator line (thick Linienzug 11 and I) e.g. twelve branchings go into twelve short circuit oscillation circles, which are radially into the stator surface embedded.

Everyone of these oscillation circles possesses a certain given capacity and self induction, which are so selected that they adapt to the wavelength of the energizing current. These twelve oscillation circles form the twelve electromagnetic fields. Between these twelve oscillation circles, which are connected with the main line, are twelve other oscillation circles, which are been correct on same wavelength, i.e. the same induction coefficients as well as those

same capacity possess, but are connected with the feeder not directly. The oscillation circles connected directly with the feeder are named b and other with A. generally speaking receive the stator twenty-four individual oscillation circles. The first twelve oscillation circles are however not directly metallically connected, 'separate by a cylindrical staff b a surface induction are caused. In order to describe before the saying more near, are in Fig. 16 four such individual oscillation circles and their connections with the main line 14 dargeslellt. Hierflir becomes in this invention a neuarliger condenser benutzl, which is characterized by the fact that it possesses three vouchers. As from Fig. 16 to see is, becomes the short circuit oscillation circle consisting of the two condenser vouchers I and 2, which are short circuit with a metal leader 4 of ineiner turn, by the drilte allocation 3 erregl, which is metallically with the Hauplleilung connected direkl. If the capacity and the Selbstinduktionskoeffizienl are so computed in this drilten line that the own oscillations are in resonance with the oscillations of the main line, then the maximum at electromagnetic energy is supplied to the short circuit oscillation circle...

Wavelength entsprichl.

In practice führl one the KoQdensalorbelege in the form of metallic tubes out (Fig. 17). As the third condenser surface, which is to be considered as exciters, slehl in the Mitle (in Fig. 15 by 3 and b, b, b bezeichnel) a Slab or a tube. Between the individual tubes and also between the exciter electrodes is a guler insulator. Thus one receives a very fesles and comfortable system from oscillation circles for high-swinging rivers both up the stator, and on the rotor discs. These must be made of well isolating material, best from particularly for this worked on art wood and or paper without structure, since usual Holzund paper pulps does not exhibit usually necessary firmness and Isolierrahigkeit.

After the execution described above one receives with good electrical insulating capacity a mechanical firmness, which to all requirements of the art of building of engines correspond, to t. All individual connecting wires 4 (Fig. 16) can also by a strong metallic ring 4 (Fig. 15}, which is fastened on the stator and serves as document for eJnzelne metallic staffs, replace will. Of course must be isolated for special cases of the leaders 4 by isolation disks from the ring. ,

Having such three pole oscillation circles with the same capacity a very high induction to exhibit, then instead of smooth metal cylinders spirals are rolled up in cylinder form, whereby the further execution of the individual induction condenser vouchers has to happen completely exactly according to pattern 16. In the last case one obtains the mechanical firmness thereby that one manufactures the insulating layer from ebonite, fiber or similar material with high firmness and rolls the turns up on such tubes, these however in metallic rings into the stator surface embeds firmly.

In Fig. 17 is the connections of the particulars oscillation circles shown if no third electrode is necessary, and the oscillation circle only for the purpose of the phase shift is used. In the same way two-pole oscillation circles are embedded also in the rotor disc, in the same amount of more ocler also only half as much as in the stator surface. They must possess however the the same capacity and self induction coefficient as the stator oscillation circles.

The individual oscillation circles in the rotor can either. from each other to be isolated, or, as in the description of stator. by a metal ring (4, Fig. 15) to be short circuit with one another. On Fig. 18 and 19 is perspectively represented, like individual S {: hwingungskreise onto the rotor disc to be installed and by rings short circuited. The individual oscillation circles exist (as from Fig. 17 evidently) from two into one another pushed, but from each other isolated metal cylinders (on Fig. 18 with 1 and 2 designation), those, by V erbindungsleitung3 short circuit, an oscillation circle closed in itself form.

The cylinders become with their two ends on the rotor basis (not drawn overview for the sake of) in two rings from IsoliermateriaJ (fiber etc.) with the taps fastens A, A, b, b.

In practice are this-struggle however not necessarily, since the tubes more.der whole length are simply embedded after into the cylindric base of the rotor from IsoIiermaterial, which is fastened a metal cylinder on the rotor axis, on dyrselben axle (isolates or also short circuit) are two metallic rings 6 and 7.

By the special feeder line 4 one half of the oscillation circles is in the same way metallically continued to connect with ring 6, and by the lines 4a the other half with ring 7. In addition, one can connect all ends with a ring or all with both, furthermore even all feeder lines can be switched off, if one regards the axle as a common connecting leader, want one the self induction of the individual oscillation circles to increase, then the rings must be isolated from the axle 6 and 7, and the feeder line 3 is not short circuit as on Fig. the connecting leader 3 can be put to 18, but her between the condenser vouchers I and 2 and the connecting leaders 4 and 4a with the ring 6 and 7 on the rotor axis into some WindungeR (Fig.1 9), here lies.

By Auewahl of suitable capacity and self induction the individual oscillation circles of the rotor must brought to the resonance. become with the energizing current on the stator, this type of rotor resembles very the famous asynchronischen type of the rotors used in three-phase engines, the so-called squirrel wheel. Also the connection of the individual Schwjngungskreise can take place parallel not only with one another, but also in series and Gruppenscha4ung, exactly the same as with usual three-phase engines, only that instead of direct leaders always individual oscillation circles from condenser surfaces and induction resistance are taken.

Effect. Upward indicated Vorerklärung more over those execution that welse OF the RH. l EGG. R “. D…. l “h. sonanz. eIDze nen ernente TM resonance engine incoming goods now mog 1C of acres, engines it. the fashion OF action OF thesis of engines ton describe (Fig. 15). Highly swinging electromagnetic rivers acres derived by LINE 14 and 15 tons the engines to and and excite the individually oscillation circles with three electrodes (NUMBER 3), present RK the stator, those, as were above already mentioned, into resonance tons been correct of acres ton the full load current oscillations (? /i or 11. Wavelength). Electromagnetic oscillations into the third electrode excite for their part all oscillation circles b b b, in then short circuit, oszillatorische, undamped oscillations develop. The latter happens in vollkomme.ner way then only if between the Erregerstromkreis and work condenser circle a full resonance exists, which is reached by suitable selection by capacity, self induction and resistance. Electromagnetic oscillations in such short circuit, undamped, oszillatorischen circles with three electrodes (b b b b… Fig. 15) excites for their part oscillations of same kind and length in the simple oscillation circles present at the stator (aaaa…). Since these oscillations are secondary, then they are shifted to the primary (in the oscillation circles b b b with three electrodes) wavelength.

To assist in the understanding become in the further description nomenclature D. S manufacturing costs D. EGG k D (b b b F '). ä the oscillation travel with rel e tro EN… industrial union. 15 primely RH gungskreise. Oscillation circles (oszillatorische circles) and the oscillation circles without third electrode (A A A…) secondary oscillation circles (or secondary oszillatorische circles) mentioned. In the first circle formed the oscillations are continued to call primary and in the second circle (A A A) as secondary oscillations furthermore the oscillations in the third electrode load oscillations and the Schwillgungen in the rotor rotor vibrations are called.

If now in the two groups of oscillations of A and b oscillation care produced, then one receives generally speaking to Zusammenhange on the stator an electromagnetic rotary field, similar to as one with usual two-phase alternating currents by current shift around 1. Period an electromagnetic rotary field receives. The individual closed primary oscillation circles form here the similar elektroinagnetischen change poles, and the secondary oscillations cause the necessary electromagnetic shifts of these poles. The electromagnetic rotary field is formed here not by electromagnets, but oscillation fields.

Each oscillation circle is to be regarded as an electromagnet fed by alternating current. This electromagnetic rotary field formed on the stator induces electromagnetic oscillations of same kind in on the rotor discs fastened and on same wavelength the tuned oscillation circles. As on the stator an electromagnetic rotary field is formed by cooperation of the individual electromagnetic oscillation circles, then also a same rotary field in the rotor is produced and thus obtains a torque after nearly exactly the same basic laws, as with usual wechseistrom engines.

The resonance engine begins to rotate and can work 1eisten. je' the resonance between the charge stream and the primary and secondary oscillation circles on the stator and on the rotor is better, the more ideally is the effectiveness and the initial torque. The engine can be adjusted by tuning and/or detuning of this resonance both and switched off and easily, by obtaining another Eigenschwingungsperiode and thus another wavelength and frequency by change of the capacity or self induction.

In Fig. the Zuführungsle exists 15! tung II from a simple circle line. In practice however it can be put into some turns to receive to umzwischen two oscillation circles a determining tension. In addition, one can get along with a turn, if one attaches an electromagnetic counterweight for the third electrode in the form of capacities (represented by S or M). Instead of producing by secondary induction in the stator a rotary field, one knows this through-direct induction also in the Schwingungskreise. For the purpose one branches a second ring circuit from the main line before the third electrode off (Fig. ) and an adjustable Selbstinduktionsspule (16) in series connection attaches 21 to this branching a capacity or.

The river runs then from the Heuptleitung 15 partly without induction resistance into the ring circuit II and excites without delay a number of Schwin gungskreise (9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14a, 15a and 16a), about the self induction resistance 16 by the ring circuit I. by the self induction this part around 1/e period is partly retarded (during correct attitude of the resistance) or around 1/e period ahead accelerated (if the phase shift by condensers is caused). Thus however another set of oscillation circles in the stator received (1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8), of them charge around 1/e period is late or accelerated takes place.

Thus in the stator a rotary field is produced, that the rotor in rotation to bring and. Work to carry out can. The individual oscillation circles are as in Fig. 16 and 17 implemented, only becomes the individual groups of I to 8 (Fig. 21) by ring b and 9 to 16a by a second ring A short circuit, during after Fig. 15 all oscillation circles by a ring to be short circuit. It is possible, on this principle. to build not only asynchronous engines, but also-synchronously working. Then m, uss however the stator line from two main distribution board rings 14 and 15 to couple (Fig.20) exist (without them metallically with one another).

All oscillation circles must receive as with pattern 16 three electrodes.

The rotor can as in Fig. 15 remains oscillation-circles represented.

In Fig. 20 is only stator

In all patterns described so far ...

Alteneck windings to implement, both on the stator and on the rotor.

Then that part of the oscillation circle e.g. on the rotor, which forms side on the rotor disc the capacity, comes (on Fig. designates 17 with I and 2), diametrically more gegen¬über the feeder line which is on the other side of the rotor disc (Fig. 17 with 3 designates), or with multipolar rotors with desired bending. If one half of the rotor disc is suction-wound, then one winds the other half likewise, but in reverse sense, so that between the feeder lines the capacities forming pipes come here, whose feeder lines come the first half between the capacities rolled up first, similarly “, oie with the Haefner Alteneck system the direct current coil are implemented, only with the difference that the individual sections consist here of individual oscillation circles, there however only briefly closed wire coils.

In the same way like the rotor one knows also the stator wickelll. N ur the feeder lines at the end must become the side gebogeIl. Such types permit a special utilization of the Verbindungsleiters of the individual oscillation circles. It continues to be possible after this coil system to switch two or four etc.

Kondensatoren in series by on rotor (or stator) a surface opposite a condenser tube (in Fig. ) instead of a connecting leader dieser' 8elege second, for which comes, designates 17 with I and 2 to be appropriate for first same condenser tube. Both condensers becomeal at the ends by lines switched into series with one another.

One has the possibility, in which kind the following new forms of Rotorwicklungen euszuführen:

#) in wreath/ring form, so that all ladder are connected with the axle (parallel system)

#) all condensers are switched to two series and such series again in 2, 3 or 4 and more parallel groups with the axle are connected.

#) all oscillation circles become with one another ge in series, switch etc.

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